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World War I. “ The Great War ” World War I (WWI). Key Objectives. Identify 4 main causes of World War I (WWI). Identify 3 causes for United States involvement in World War I. Identify the change in United States foreign policy. Europe. Four (4) Main Causes of World War I MAIN

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world war i

World War I

“The Great War”

World War I

(WWI)

key objectives
Key Objectives
  • Identify 4 main causes of World War I (WWI).
  • Identify 3 causes for United States involvement in World War I.
  • Identify the change in United States foreign policy.
europe
Europe
  • Four (4) Main Causes of World War I
    • MAIN
      • M - Militarism
      • A - Alliance System
      • I - Imperialism
      • N - Nationalism
nationalism
Nationalism
  • devotion and loyalty to one's own nation; patriotism.
  • Excessive patriotism
militarism
Militarism
  • a strong military spirit or policy.
united states foreign policy
United States Foreign Policy
  • What was the U.S. policy on European Affairs?
  • What was this policy called?
    • Who initially promoted this policy?
isolationism why abandon
Isolationism – Why abandon?
  • What caused the United States to abandon isolationism and get involved in World War I?
  • Why did the U.S. get involved?
reasons for u s involvement
Reasons for U.S. Involvement
  • 3 MAJOR REASONS
    • 1) German unrestricted submarine warfare
    • 2) Zimmermann Telegram
    • 3) Economic/Moral Interests of the United States
i submarine warfare
I. Submarine Warfare
  • The German U-Boat
    • Underwasser Boat
submarine warfare
Submarine Warfare
  • Sinking of the RMS Lusitania
  • May 7, 1915
  • SUNK WITHOUT WARNING
    • British luxury ocean liner
    • A passenger ship
      • Had been carrying military cargo
      • Deck had structural changes for gun decks
    • 128 Americans killed
      • What did Americans think of this?
submarine warfare1
Submarine Warfare
  • German Warnings
    • Were the Germans wrong?
    • Germans apologize
    • Paid reparations
      • Reparation
reparation
Reparation
  • monetary compensation intended to cover damage or injury during a war.
president woodrow wilson
President Woodrow Wilson
  • Wanted to protect the rights of Americans to travel safely on belligerent ships
    • Belligerent
  • Was this realistic?
arabic pledge
Arabic Pledge
  • Arabic
  • British Passenger Liner
    • Attacked and sunk by German U-Boat
      • 2 Americans killed
    • U.S. threatened war
  • Germany would warn non-military ships 30 minutes before they sank them to make sure the passengers and crew got out safely.
sussex
Sussex
  • French Passenger Ferry
    • Sank March 24, 1916
  • What did this violate?
    • Some American injuries
      • No deaths
    • President Wilson threatened to cut diplomatic relations with Germany
    • Germany announces its Sussex Pledge
      • Germany did not want U.S. entering war.
        • Realized U.S. had industrial power and man power
sussex pledge
Sussex Pledge
  • Germans Promise:
    • Passenger ships would not be targeted;
    • Merchant ships would not be sunk until the presence of boats had been established, if necessary by a search of the ship;
    • Merchant ships would not be sunk without provision for the safety of passengers and crew.
      • British took FULL advantage of this pledge.
germans break sussex pledge
Germans Break Sussex Pledge
  • January 31, 1917
  • Germans rescind Sussex Pledge
  • Germany declared unrestricted submarine warfare
    • Why?
      • Convinced they could defeat Allied Forces before United States would be involved.
      • Made a proposal to Mexico thinking Mexico could keep the United States occupied.
ii zimmermann telegram
II. Zimmermann Telegram
  • February 1, 1917 (Importance?)
  • Note from German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann to German Ambassador in the U.S.A. Johann von Berstoff.
  • Zimmermann requested the note be forwarded to the German ambassador in Mexico.
zimmermann telegram
Zimmermann Telegram
  • To Mexico
    • Proposed:
      • Mexican-German Alliance
      • Reclamation of territory lost in Mexican American War
        • Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
british interception
British Interception
  • British intercept the note
  • Decoded the note
  • Alerted U.S.
  • Telegram inflamed U.S. public
    • Why does Britain do this?
    • Mexico
      • President Carranza declines the note.
        • Not feasible
iii moral economic interest
III. Moral/Economic Interest
  • United States made loans to allies.
  • President Wilson viewed unrestricted submarine warfare as terrorism
  • Wilson said “the world must be made safe for democracy”
drawing a parallel to today
Drawing a Parallel to Today
  • Think about Wilson’s feelings on submarine warfare and democracy. How are his thoughts similar to some of those in our recent past?
    • Consider the spread of American ideals
  • Think
      • - write some thoughts down on a sheet of looseleaf.
  • Discuss with a neighbor
  • Class discussion
review
Review
  • 3 Main Causes
  • U-Boat
  • RMS Lusitania
  • Two pledges designed to protect passenger ships?
  • Moral reason for involvement
  • Economic reason for involvement
formal declaration of war
Formal Declaration of War
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • “the world must be made safe for democracy”
  • Congress
  • Declares war April 4, 1917
selective service act
Selective Service Act
  • Instituted a draft to recruit an army.
  • Ages 18-45 (male)
    • 24 million men registered.
    • 2.8 million drafted.
convoy system
Convoy System
  • German U-Boats
  • Sunk merchant ships
  • Problem: How to get supplies across Atlantic.
  • Answer:
    • Merchant ships would be accompanied by a convoy of war ships (group of warships) on their journey across the Atlantic.
financing the war
Financing the War
  • Liberty Bonds
  • Victory Bonds
    • People bought bonds
  • Bond – a loan to the government. Government pays interest
      • In other words, it is as if the individual was the bank, lending the government money.
conserving resources
Conserving Resources
  • Food Administration
  • Goals:
    • Conserve existing food
    • Increase agricultural production
      • In charge of this campaign: Herbert Hoover
conserving resources1
Conserving Resources
  • Fuel Administration
      • Harry Garfield (son of James Garfield)
  • “Heatless Mondays”
  • USED FORCE –
    • U.S. ran short on coal in 1918 so for several days all factories east of the Mississippi were shut down.
organizing industry
Organizing Industry
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
    • Determined how scarce resources would be used.
    • Established priorities for production (war materials)
    • Set prices
national war labor board
National War Labor Board
  • Workers went on strike.
  • Realized how much they were needed.
  • Strikes hurt the war effort.
    • The NWLB was formed to resolve disputes and often sided with laborers.
influencing attitudes
Influencing Attitudes
  • Committee of Public Information
    • Propaganda to get Americans to support the war.
    • Propaganda
        • information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
quieting opposition
Quieting Opposition
  • Espionage Act
  • Sedition Act
    • Outlawed treason
        • Treason
    • Illegal to “utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal… or abusive language” criticizing the government, the flag, or the military.
schenck v united states
Schenck v. United States
  • Charles Schenck
  • Protested the draft by sending leaflets in the mail.
    • "Do not submit to intimidation"
    • "Assert your rights"
    • "If you do not assert and support your rights, you are helping to deny or disparage rights which it is the solemn duty of all citizens and residents of the United States to retain."
schenck v united states1
Schenck v. United States
  • Question:
      • whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I.
      • Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes
  • Decision:
    • “Clear and Present Danger”
      • if it can be shown that the language it prohibits poses a "clear and present danger.”
the war s end
The War’s End
  • The Russian Revolution
    • Russians wanted a change in government and an end to the war. (overthrow the czar)
    • Russians were hungry
  • Bolsheviks
      • Radical Russian socialists
      • Opposed the war
      • Led by Vladimir Lenin
  • SIGN A SEPARATE TREATY with CENTRAL POWERS ENDING RUSSIA’S INVOLVEMENT IN WWI
german offensive
German Offensive
  • Headed toward Paris
  • Pershing agrees to allow French command to take control of American troops to defend France.
  • U.S.A. helps save Paris from the Germans.
  • U.S.A and Allies begin to push Germans back.
allied victory
Allied Victory
  • Germans
    • Rioting streets
    • Hungry for food
    • German mutinies
  • Kaiser realized the war was lost.
      • Armistice Signed November 11, 1918.
  • Peace conference set for 1919
slide43

World War I Deaths

(Central Powers)

Bulgaria - Green

slide44

World War I

Triple Entente Deaths (Allies)

U.S. (Blue)

2%

wilson s 14 points
Wilson’s 14 Points
  • A program for world peace.
  • 9 Points – Self Determination
      • Self Determination – the right for a country to govern itself.
  • 4 Points – Causes of modern war
      • Secret diplomacy; arms race; violations of freedom of the seas; trade barriers.
  • Final Point – The League of Nations
the league of nations
The League of Nations
  • An international body designed to prevent OFFENSIVE wars.
        • Germans believed program was interfering with European affairs
        • Received warmly by others.
the paris peace conference
The Paris Peace Conference
  • “The BIG FOUR”
    • Woodrow Wilson – U.S.A.
    • David Lloyd George – Britain
    • George Clemenceau - France
    • Vittorio Orlando – Italy
    • WHAT IMPORTANT COUNTRY IS NOT REPRESENTED?
reparations
Reparations
  • Orlando, George, Clemenceau
    • Wanted to PUNISH Germany for “starting” the war.
    • Must bear the financial cost of the war.
    • Force Germany to pay reparations*.
      • * this will be a major CAUSE FOR WWII
  • DEMANDS VIOLATED what Wilson called for in his 14 Points.
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Palace of Versailles
  • U.S. Secretary of State Lansing commented:
      • “The terms of the peace appear immeasurably harsh and humiliating.”
treaty of versailles1
Treaty of Versailles

Germany

  • Forced to disarm.
  • Admit full responsibility for the war.
  • Charged billions of dollars in reparations.
wilson s influence
Wilson’s Influence
  • Created the League of Nations
  • Harsh treatment of Germany would have been MUCH worse had Wilson not been present.
ratifying the treaty
Ratifying the Treaty
  • Key Issue:
  • The League of Nations
  • Ratification:
    • 2/3 Majority for Approval of a treaty
    • Which House of Congress approves treaties?
article 10 of the treaty
Article 10 of the Treaty
  • ARTICLE 10: the "covenant" clause
      • The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.
article 10
Article 10
  • Problem with the Treaty
    • Senators believed it committed the U.S. to going to war in defense of any League member that was attacked.
henry cabot lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
  • Senator Massachusetts
  • Premier opponent to the Treaty.
  • Presented “14 Reservations”
    • Purpose: modifying the treaty
  • What was Lodge mocking?
treaty of versailles2
Treaty of Versailles
  • Never ratified by U.S. Senate
  • The very country who promoted the creation of the League, failed to join it.
    • Major Implication:
      • The League would fail.
global impact of the war
Global Impact of the War
  • Europe destroyed.
  • Boundary lines created by the treaty were blurred and confusion existed.
  • Germany
    • Uncontrollable inflation in Germany
    • Germans resented the Treaty of Versailles.
    • Created a breeding ground for the rise of Hitler
essay question
Essay Question
  • What are the three reasons for U.S. involvement in World War I? Explain how each contributed to the United States entering World War I.