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Stearns, page 119; Glencoe, page 197 PowerPoint Presentation
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Stearns, page 119; Glencoe, page 197

Stearns, page 119; Glencoe, page 197

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Stearns, page 119; Glencoe, page 197

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  1. Stearns, page 119; Glencoe, page 197 • How far north did the Islam empires spread? • 2. How did the Arabs benefit from expansion? Stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours in France in 732; ended Arab European expansion Under the Abbasid Dynasty, the Arabs controlled some of the richest trade routes and provinces in the world

  2. The Crusades • In the 7th Century. Muslims, conquered Palestine • where Jesus Christ had lived and preached • Muslims were tolerant • let Christians/Jews and keep their faiths • Christian pilgrims visited the Christian 'Holy Land‘ & shrines freely • In the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks conquered Jerusalem • Persecuted Christian pilgrims • 1071, defeated the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert; Threatened Byzantine Empire; Emperor Alexius asked the Pope for help • Pope Urban II called for a “Holy War” or “Crusade” against the Muslim “infidels” (unbelievers) and occupiers of the Holy Lands • 1000s responded and pinned crosses on their tunics

  3. The Crusades continued • Between 1096-1212, there were 7 crusades • 1000s responded and pinned crosses on their tunics & marched to fight/die for God • 1st Crusade: (1096-1099) • French, German, and Italian armies captured Jerusalem • Sacked the city, slaughtered many Muslims & Jews; stole/ransacked goods • Many Crusaders went home--left surrounding territories vulnerable • Muslim leader, Saladin captured Edessa • 2nd Crusade: (1147-1149) • 2nd Crusade failed to win Edessa back • Additionally, Saladin re-captured Jerusalem in 1187 for the Muslims

  4. The Crusades continued • 3rd Crusade: (1189-1192) • Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany drowned in a local river • English King Richard & French King Philip II of France arrived by sea • captured the coastal cities • unable to move inland & capture Jerusalem • Saladin was impressed with King Richard’s fighting on the coast • King Richard earned the nickname the “Lionhearted” here • Saladin agreed to allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem

  5. Muslim leader • Established the Ayyubid Dynasty • Very devout • Legendary chivalry • Defeated Europeans in the 2nd & 3rd Crusades • Spared Jerusalem • Made Cairo a vibrant medieval city Saladin (1138-1193)

  6. The Crusades continued • 4th Crusade (1202-1204) • Venetian leaders used the opportunity to weaken their largest economic competitor • Diverted Crusaders to Constantinople; sacked the city and ruled it until 1261 • Byzantine army recaptured Constantinople in 1261 • Byzantine Empire never regained their great power • Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453

  7. What was the main effect of the Crusades?

  8. Italian port cities prospered economically • Opened Europeans to a variety of goods and products: silks, spices, coffee, tea, science, and knowledge • Access to the compass/astrolabe provided Europeans with the means to travel away from the coastline and to seek new goods • Access to information about gun powder will enhance their more aggression and lead to imperialistic tendencies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas • 4th Crusade sacked Constantinople; • weakened the Byzantine Empire • Led to Anti-Semitism in Europe • Broke down feudalism; • Paved the way for the development of European nation-states • Lasting impact: bred centuries of distrust & enmity between Muslims &Christians

  9. Islam & the Mongols

  10. Mongols • 1258, Mongols seized Persia and Mesopotamia • Ended Abbasid Caliphate • Hulegu sacked Baghdad • Destroyed libraries, mosques, palaces Hulegu (hoo-LAY-goo)

  11. Turkish slave-soldiers (Mamluks) stopped the Mongols at the Red Sea • Mongolians inter-married with local peoples • Mongolians converted to Islam and spread the religion throughout Asia/southern Europe • Mongolian conquest ended Baghdad’s leadership • Cairo became the new center of Islamic civilization

  12. New capital Ideal location Close to Persian capital Spectacular city Economic center of Muslim world Banking – checks Academic center Baghdad

  13. Urban expansion Long-distance trade Increase in handicraft production New converts Islam - Widespread

  14. Untouchable rulers The “Shadow of God on earth” Taste for luxury Caliph Harun al-Rashid 786-809 “Golden Age of Muslims” Learning, trade, and government Courtly Excesses

  15. Civil war over successors with Rashid’s death Political divisions Shiite revolts and assassination attempts Slave mercenaries Taxes, famine, flood, bandit gangs Imperial Breakdown

  16. Islamic Achievements • Ibn- Rushd – translated Aristotle’s works • Spread the Indian # system with 0; easier to us than Roman numerals • Europeans mislabeled the system “Arabic” • Developed Algebra

  17. Baghdad Observatory • Knew the Earth was round • Astrolabe = helped sailors calculate the angles of the sun and the stars. • Armillary = Astronomers lined up the top rings of the sphere and calculated the time of day or year. This was useful for mapmaking and calendars. Medicine • Ibn Sina - wrote medical encyclopedia • “The” University medical textbook • Al Qasim’s drawings of medical tools was the foremost text on surgery in Europe for nearly 500 years

  18. Literature • Ibn Khaldun (14th C) • - Muslim historian • - Civilizations rise/decay in cycles Omar Khayyam (12th C) - Rubiyat - Arabian Nights

  19. Architecture Mosque in Tashkent, Uzbekistan Mosque of Cordova, Spain Center of learning & culture

  20. Art& writing Calligraphy Arabesques

  21. Arab dhow with lateen sails

  22. Ibn Battuta 1304-1349? • Most celebrated Muslim traveler in the postclassical world • Islamic scholar who recorded his travels throughout the dar al Islam(Muslim states) • Traveled over 75,000 miles; to Spain, Timbuktu, China, India, the Maldives Islands, East Africa, and the Mali Empire • Worked in government positions everywhere he went as an adviser or judge • Promoted the proper observance of Islam

  23. Key Terms Shari'ah: The revealed and the canonical laws of the religion of Islam. The legislative power in the government lies in the hands of legislative assembly. The legislators are to make rules and regulations within the scope and dimensions of the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet. These rules constitute the Shari'ah. Mosque: Muslim building of prayer and worship. Jihad: Literally means, "struggle“ or “striving”; refers to the obligation of all Muslims to struggle against error and evil. In another sense it refers to the defensive military struggle against those who would attack Muslims and subvert their faith, hence the concept of the 'Holy war’. P.B.U.H. :These letters are abbreviations for the words Peace Be Upon Him which corresponds to the meaning of the Arabic expression “Alaihis Salam”, which is an expression that is said when the name of a prophet is mentioned. This expression is widely used by English speaking Muslims. It is to be noticed here that this expression does not give the full meaning of "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam“ (may the blessing and the peace of Allah be upon him). Therefore it is recommended that people do not use (p.b.u.h.) after the name of prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.); they should use "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam" instead, or they may use the abbreviated form of (s.a.w) in writing.

  24. Comparisons: Holy men in Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism • Read page 13. • Make a Venn diagram comparing the role of holy mystics in the 3 religions

  25. “Perspectives: Gender Roles in Early Islamic Societies” 1. Read page 15. 2. Describe the similarities and differences in gender roles in Muhammad’s era, the Umayyad dynasty, and the Abbasid dynasty. 3. Give specific similarities and differences between all 3. 4. Give specific details/evidence to support your similarities and differences.

  26. Abbasid Empire: Pre-Islamic Similarities • Under influence of Persian culture, women veiled and secluded • Increase in patriarchal authority • Only males permitted multiple marriages • Development of the harem • Lower class women enjoyed more freedom than upper class women • - Had greater liberty than those of Byzantium or Persia • Played important economic roles; • Matrilineal descent in some clans • Not secluded • Both males and females allowed multiple marriages in some clans • Women often fought beside men • Patriarchal • More urbane, the less freedom women have