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  1. page / screen design • lay-out • perceptual variables: • color, size, shape, orientation, movement web design = design of pages • page layout • typography • illustrations OIS Utrecht 2010

  2. page lay-out • first 10 cm should be enogh to know if you want to read this, or to skip • top: title / identification / identity; • main navigation • bottom: web master/author, date, site map, etc. OIS Utrecht 2010

  3. Page layout: supports scanning and reading OIS Utrecht 2010

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  6. Layout in our western world we read from left to right and from top to bottom OIS Utrecht 2010

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  10. Layout in our western world we read from left to right and from top to bottom most important items top left reading: max. 40-60 char. per line • newspaper columns (8 cm) • longer lines enforce head movement OIS Utrecht 2010

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  12. Layout what screen size to expect? different browsers people use only part of screen for browser some options: • Cascading Style Sheets • image maps for text labels OIS Utrecht 2010

  13. Cascading Style Sheets separation of text and layout OIS Utrecht 2010

  14. text in image • designer is in full control • takes time to download • some people do not want pictures OIS Utrecht 2010

  15. Image maps: controle of font and layout; multiple links OIS Utrecht 2010

  16. design – crowded real estate • designers like “white space”, • real estate is expensive, so people use all (newspapers, Las Vegas, Times Square) • typografic rule of thumb: fill 70% max • Psychological rule fo thumb (Fitts’ Law): use simpel “grid” OIS Utrecht 2010

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  19. Typography • contrast between text and background • goal is readability OIS Utrecht 2010

  20. reading is recognition of words, not characters: All Capitals spoils the word profiles: capitals have meaning for names and start of sentences: OIS Utrecht 2010

  21. Fonts • fonts are graphical elements, aiming at meaning first, but, additionally, style • balance between resolution, space, tradition, uniqueness OIS Utrecht 2010

  22. typographical variation in running text OIS Utrecht 2010

  23. Consistency important characteristic of good design • recognizability • easy reading • carefull, style OIS Utrecht 2010

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  25. hints • line space not too low (> font size) • restrictred variation in font size (10-14) • maximum of 2 fonts • use of font variables (color) mainly for destinction of headers, not within text OIS Utrecht 2010

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  27. useit.com: usable information technology after 6 years .... Permanent Content Alertbox Jakob's column on Web usability Informational Articles Must Ask For the Order (Aug. 23) Unless you have explicit links to product pages from article content, users who visit articles directly from search engines might never realize that you sell related products. Search Engine Behavior (Aug. 16) Information Scent (Aug. 2) Card Sorting (July 19) All Alertbox columns from 1995 to 2004 useit.com: Jakob Nielsen's Website OIS Utrecht 2010

  28. background contrast is of main importance: • dark text on light background or vice versa • no contrast within background OIS Utrecht 2010

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  31. color • supports organization of page • creates harmonic balance OIS Utrecht 2010

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  33. Colors can support understanding .... if conform to cultural or educational habits OIS Utrecht 2010

  34. ... or confuse, even if perceptual quality (including contrast) is identical OIS Utrecht 2010

  35. Colour • Harmonious colour combination • Contrast • Legibility • Colour blindness • Culture / education OIS Utrecht 2010

  36. Colour Contrast OIS Utrecht 2010

  37. color contrast effects legibility OIS Utrecht 2010

  38. Bitmaps of vector graphics bitmaps (raster graphics) • gif, jpeg • for photographs vector graphics • Postscript, Flash, VML (vector mark-up language) • line drawings, cartoons, fonts • resolution independent OIS Utrecht 2010

  39. GIF: Graphic Interchange Format • bitmap • compressed without loss • transparency, animation OIS Utrecht 2010

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  41. JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group OIS Utrecht 2010

  42. pictures • if relevant • restrict colors • test alternatives OIS Utrecht 2010

  43. Role of images • Image and information • Image and emotion • Image and memory • Image and culture • Convicing viewers OIS Utrecht 2010

  44. use graphics and images to ... • Show who • Show what (portrays, describes physical objects) • Show what’s inside • Show where • Show when (time) • Show how it works • Show how to do it (e.g steps in a task) • Show examples (instances of a general category or idea) • Show what can not been seen • Show comparison OIS Utrecht 2010

  45. what’s inside who use visuals to show: OIS Utrecht 2010

  46. where when use visuals to show: OIS Utrecht 2010

  47. images can show how it works time as well as three dimensions on a flat surface: The solar system, William Pearson, 1820 OIS Utrecht 2010

  48. ... and words may be needed too: OIS Utrecht 2010

  49. images support comparison OIS Utrecht 2010

  50. useit.com: usable information technology Permanent Content Alertbox Jakob's column on Web usability Informational Articles Must Ask For the Order (Aug. 23) Unless you have explicit links to product pages from article content, users who visit articles directly from search engines might never realize that you sell related products. Search Engine Behavior (Aug. 16) Information Scent (Aug. 2) Card Sorting (July 19) All Alertbox columns from 1995 to 2004 useit.com: Jakob Nielsen's Website OIS Utrecht 2010