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Why do we care about global warming ?

Why do we care about global warming ?

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Why do we care about global warming ?

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  1. Why do we care about global warming? Karen Chan Jovita Chan Gody Chung Natalie Cheng

  2. Why does global warming become alarming? Environmentally… • Sea Level Rise • Sea level rise  caused by the thermal expansion of sea water (climate warming and widespread melting of land ice) • The chart on the left  the historical sea level ground data the sea level raises 1.7mm per year • The chart on the right  the average sea level since 1993 derived from global satellite measurements • Global sea level rose about 17 cm in the last century • The rate in the last decade nearly double that of the last century

  3. Why does global warming become alarming? Environmentally… 2. Global Temperature rise • the change in global surface temperature relative to 1951-1980 average temperatures • January 2000 to December 2009 the warmest decade  increased from -0.3 oC in 1880 to 0.6 oC in 2010 (a 0.9 oC rise)

  4. Why does global warming become alarming? Environmentally… • 世界氣象組織:去年歷來最熱(法新社)2011年1月21日 星期五 • 聯合國    世界氣象組織    (World Meteorological Organization, WMO)今天表示,2010年是有紀錄以來最熱的1年,證實「顯著」的長期全球暖化 趨勢。WMO發布聲明指出,北極    海冰層的高度在上個月融化到歷年12月份的最低紀錄,全球暖化趨勢是原因之一。自人類開始保留以儀器測得的天氣紀錄以來,過去10年的全球氣溫已創下歷來最熱10年的紀錄。 • Global Temperature rises  2010 = hottest year on record  2000-2010 = hottest decade ever

  5. Why does global warming become alarming? Environmentally… 3. Declining arctic sea ice & shrinking of ice sheets Arctic ice in 1979-2010: Arctic ice in September 2009 • Overall  decrease • 1979 about 6.4 million km2sea ice • 2010 about 4 million km2 sea ice • Highest= 1980 about 7 million km2 • Lowest = 2007 about 3.6million km2 Arctic ice in September 2010

  6. Why does global warming become alarming? Environmentally… • The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased a lot • Greenland lost 150 to 250 km3of ice per year between 2002 and 2006 • Antarctica lost about 152 km3of ice between 2002 and 2005. Flowing melt water from the Greenland ice sheet Average Glacier thickness is decreasing from 1960 to 2000s

  7. Why does global warming become alarming? Environmentally… Retreat of Greenland's Glacier from 2001 to 2005 Glacial retreats Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world — including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa.

  8. Why does global warming become alarming? Environmentally… 4. Extinction of species 全球暖化,不僅威脅北極熊的生存,就連北極熊的「極地鄰居」—企鵝,也因為棲息地不斷縮小而受到牽連。 在全球暖化下,受冰川溶化和捕獵者數目增加的影響,企鵝的棲息地正不斷縮小。根據世界自然基金會(WWF)報告顯示,一旦全球氣溫上升攝氏2度,其中50%的帝皇企鵝便會面臨棲息地縮減甚至消失的危機。 (2011年01月21日,星期五都市日報)  Sea ice shrinkage Emperor Penguins’ lives are threatened (lost of habitat) • Sea ice shrinkage  Polar bears’ lives are threatened • estimated that by the early 2010s, female bears will be too thin to reproduce

  9. Why does global warming become alarming? Environmentally… 5. Bleaching of coral • “暖化殺珊瑚 泰關數十潛水區” (明報)2011年1月21日 星期五去年4月至5月底,安達曼海的海平面溫度上升至34℃印尼    亞齊省一些珊瑚品種在去年5月至8月之間有80%死亡。港人熱門潛水地點泰國    南部遭遇生態環境危機將關閉數十個位於該國西南安達曼海(Andaman Sea)的潛水區,原因是當地珊瑚礁由於海平面溫度異常升高而嚴重白化。 • Warmer water bleaching of coral in Andaman Sea in Thailand • 80% coral died in India

  10. Why does global warming become alarming? Socially… 1. Low-lying areas will be flooded • rise in sea level • low-lying coastal areas are threatened • Over the last century sea levels  risen about 20 cm • further rises of the ocean  threaten the existence of Maldives • lowest country in the world • maximum natural ground level =2.3 m • average 1.5 m above sea level • People’s lives  threatened • need to consider of leaving Republic of Maldives: threatened by a rise in sea level

  11. Why does global warming become alarming? Socially… 2. Health Risks • 2003 European heat waveJune 2003 to August 2003 • Mostly in western Europe • More than 40,000 • Europeans died • e.g. France14,802 heat-related deaths • seven days with temperatures of more than 40 °C e.g. 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave cause 2010 Russian wildfires56,000 people died from smog & heat wave

  12. Why does global warming become alarming? Economically… 1. Crops failure due to heat waves • 2003 European heat waveshortfalls in wheat harvest occurred as a result of the long drought • France - 20% • Italy - 13% • United Kingdom - 12% • Moldova - 80% • European total production  down by 10 million tonnes, or 10%

  13. Why does global warming become alarming? Economically… • 2.Recreation & tourism • Vanishing Bolivian Glacier Ends Highest Ski Run – Bloomburg • (By Jonathan J. Levin and Jose Orozco - August 5, 2009 10:59 EDT) • “It’s regrettable for the children, the youth of the city,” said the Club Andino’s (ski resort) president.“Tourists will prefer the ski centers in Chile and Argentina.” • Chacaltaya glacier, range of the Bolivian Andes in South America an area of 0.22 km² reduced to 0.01 km² in 2007 • completely gone by 2009 • Bolivia lost its only ski resort  no more ski industry less tourists  affect tourism

  14. Why does global warming become alarming? Global Warming is currently affecting us… 1. Temperature Rise in HK • An average rise of 0.12°C per decade from 1885 to 2009 • The rate of increase in average temperature faster in the latter half of the 20th century • From 1947 to 2009, the average rise amounted to 0.16°C per decade, accelerating to 0.28°C per decade during 1980-2009 2. Rise in sea level in HK Annual mean sea level at Victoria Harbour (1954-2009) • There was a rapid rise of the sea level from 1990 to 1999 • a moderate decline thereafter • On average, the mean sea level in the Victoria Harbour has risen at a rate of 2.6 mm per year during the period 1954 to 2009. Therefore, global warming is also affecting us  alarming

  15. What actions can be taken to tackle global warming? Government 1. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions • Since 1997 Government banned the construction of new coal-fired generating units in favor of natural gas • emits around 50% less greenhouse gas for the same amount of electricity produced • Power companies  take measures to maximize the use of natural gas in electricity generation • May 2005Governmentset a target of having 1-2% of Hong Kong’s total electricity supply met by renewable by 2012.

  16. What actions can be taken to tackle global warming? Government 2. Raising public awareness • Encourage the Public to Set Air-conditioning Temperature at 25.5°C • 1/3 of the electricity consumed in HK air conditioning • Setting room temperature at 25.5°C • dress lightly in the summer time  reasonable level of thermal comfort while consuming less electricity for air-conditioning • Assist the Public to Choose Energy Efficient Products • voluntary Energy Efficiency Labelling Scheme (EELS) for appliances, equipment and vehicles  • aims = inform product's level of energy consumption and efficiency rating  choose more energy efficient products • mandatory EELS • first phase :room air conditioners, refrigerating, compact fluorescent lamps

  17. What actions can be taken to tackle global warming? Government 3. Improving transport systems • Extend Public Transport System • Extensive and energy-efficient public transport system in HK  control greenhouse gas emissions at a low level • 90% of the 11 million commuter trips each day  public transport system • Further expanding and upgrading our public transport infrastructure + emphasis on railwayse.g. Development of South Island Line in MTRC • Promote Cleaner Vehicles • Encourage the use of cleaner vehicles tax incentive schemes(environment-friendly petrol private cars and commercial vehicles) •  Vehicles meeting the energy efficiency and exhaust emission criteria  the First Registration Tax reduced

  18. What actions can be taken to tackle global warming? Government • Promote the Use of Biodiesel as Motor Vehicle Fuel • Biodiesel is a kind of renewable energy  • Promote the use of biodiesel for motor uses the duty-free arrangement for use of biodiesel as motor vehicle fuel • Specifications on the use of biodiesel in motor vehicles  promote development of the biodiesel market

  19. What actions can be taken to tackle global warming? Individuals 1. Reducing the size of carbon footprint • Carbon footprint = total amount of carbon dioxideemissions resulting directly or indirectly from an individuals’ lifestyle • The bigger the footprint the moregreenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere • Take shorter hot showers less electricity is used • Turn off electrical appliances when they are not in use/ switch off standby (lights, television, DVD player, Hi Fi, computer etc. ) save energy • Fill your washing machine with full load  save water, electricity, and washing powder

  20. What actions can be taken to tackle global warming? Individuals • Use energy-saving electrical appliances (e.g compact florescent lamps) reduce the use of electricity and emit less pollutant • Consume hybrid electric vehicles since petrol and batteries are used as their fuels save half of the fuel • Eat less beef since cattle ranching release more methane • Use mass transport system (e.g. MTR) less vehicles are used and emit less pollutants( e.g. CO2)

  21. Why would people oppose the belief of global warming? • Individuals • It won’t help a lot even if people in a small city became environmentally friendly •  why should we change our lifestyle if it doesn’t help • the globe? • inconvenient to change our lifestyle •  e.g. to take public transport instead of private cars •  e.g. reduce the use of air-conditioner •  in short term, I feel uncomfortable with the sudden • change of my lifestyle •  in long term, it may not be affecting me when • problems go more serious

  22. Cost • Electric companies • renewable energy e.g. solar energy is very costly • - import of solar panels • May not be able to use renewable energy • - due to insufficient land • Business sector • the reduce of the use of coal may reduce the income • made by power generation from coal-fired power plant • costly energy-saving appliances may not be supported in • office (e.g. light bulb) • Individual • the energy-saving appliances (light bulbs, refrigerators, • vehicles) are very expensive • may not be affordable

  23. -END-Thank you for watching!