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Chapter 7. Lesson 7-1. Thirteen Independent States A. Katherine while americans were fighting for their independence on the battlefield, they were also creating new governments. B. Becca british ignored the treaty of paris and kept troops at the frontier post on american territory

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lesson 7 1
Lesson 7-1
  • Thirteen Independent States

A. Katherine while americans were fighting for their independence on the battlefield, they were also creating new governments.

B. Beccabritish ignored the treaty of paris and kept troops at the frontier post on american territory

C. Malaci by the end of 1776,eight states had drafted constiutions

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D. Laura the british rule made americans cautious about placing to much power in a single ruler. For that reason the states adopted constitution that limited the power of the governor.

E. Morgan The state constitutions restricted the powers of the governors which made the legislatures the most powerful branch of government

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Forming a Republic

A. Nate dog in 1776 the second continental congress appointed a committee to draw up a plan for a new government.

B. Taten-___-……Articles of Confederation-Consisted of Congress, had authority to conduct foreign affairs, maintained armed forces, borrow money, issue currency-November 1777

Maryland refused to aprove Article.

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C. Hunter The article of confederation did not provide a government strong enough to handle problems facing the united states. :P

D. Banks Under the confederation government, Americans won their independence and expanded foreign trade:/

CHEYENNE IS MR.FREEMAN’S FAVORITE!! AND HE A _______________ fill in the blank!

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E. Nancy on march 1 ,1781 the confederation became the government of the united states.

F. Zane the confederation government had it weaknesses but it won Americans their independence

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G. Mr. Freeman the A of C had limited authority.

H. Mr. Freeman It could not pass alaw unless nine states voted for it.

I. Mr. Freeman To change the A of C, all 13 states had to give consent.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787-it created lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River.

chapter 7 section 2
Chapter 7 – Section 2
  • I. Economic Depression
    • A. The United States went through a depression, or a time when economic activity slowed and unemployment increased, after the Revolutionary War.
      • 1. Because Southern plantations were damaged during the war, they could not produce as much rice as prior to the war. As a result, rice exports dropped.
      • 2. Farmers could not sell the goods they grew and therefore did not have money to pay state taxes.
      • 3. American trade fell off when Britain closed the West Indies to American merchants. As a result, currency was in short supply, and whatever was around was used to pay the war debt.
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B. The Shays’ Rebellion occurred as a result of the problems farmers suffered. In 1787 Daniel Shays led a group of more than 1,000 angry farmers in forcing courts in western Massachusetts to close so judges could not seize farmers’ lands.

  • C. Shays led the farmers toward the federal arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts, for arms and ammunition. The farmers did not stop, even when the state militia fired over their heads and then directly at them, killing four. The uprising was over when Shays and his followers scattered.
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D. Americans felt the impact of the Shays uprising. Many were scared that future uprisings could occur.

E. Slavery was a difficult issue that many people and group began to work toward ending.

1. Quakers organized the first American Antislavery Society in 1774.

2. In 1780 Pennsylvania passed a law that provided for freeing enslaved people gradually.

3. In 1783 a Massachusetts court ruled slavery was illegal.

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4. Between 1784 and 1804, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey passed laws that gradually ended slavery.

  • 5. In 1787 the Free African Society in Philadelphia was formed.
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III. The Constitutional Convention

    • A. The Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia beginning in May 1787 and consisted of 55 delegates, none of whom were Native American, African American, or women. NONE of these groups were included in the political process.
    • B. Several leaders stood out – George Washington, Ben Franklin, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris (who wrote the final draft of the Constitution), Edmund Randolph, and James Madison (who became known as the “Father of the Constitution” because he authored the basic plan of government that was adopted.
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C. George Washington presided. The basic rules were:

    • 1. each state had one vote on all issues
    • 2. a majority vote was needed to finalize decisions
    • 3. delegates from at least 7 of the 13 states were required for meetings to be held
    • 4. delegates met behind closed doors so they could talk freely
    • D. Two plans of government were proposed – the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan.
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E. The Virginia Plan, proposed by Edmund Randolph from Virginia, called for a two-house legislature, a chief executive chosen by the legislature, and a court system.

    • 1. The people would elect members of the lower house.
    • 2. The lower house would choose members of he upper house.
    • 3. In both houses, the number of representatives would be proportional to the population of each state. A state with a smaller population would have fewer representatives than a state with a larger population.
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F. The New Jersey Plan, proposed by William Paterson, modified the Articles of Confederation.

    • 1. It kept the one-house legislature with one vote for each state.
    • 2. Congress would now have the powers to set taxes and regulate trade.
    • 3. Congress would elect a weak executive branch with more than one person.
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IV. Compromise Wins Out

    • A. The delegates decided that simply revising the Articles of Confederation would not solve the problems. They voted to plan a national government based on the Virginia Plan, but they had to work out several issues, such as:
      • 1. how the members of Congress were to be elected.
      • 2. how state representation would be determined in both houses.
      • 3. whether or not enslaved people were to be counted as part of the population, which would affect the number of representatives for some states
      • 4. whether or not to ban slavery
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B. The Great Compromise was the agreement used to resolve the representation issues. Roger Sherman of Connecticut proposed the plan. It said that:

    • 1. There would be a two-house legislature. In the lower house, or House of Representatives, the number of seats for each state would vary according to the state’s population. In the upper house, or Senate, each state would have two members.
    • 2. The way to count enslaved people would be determined by the Three-Fifths Compromise. Each slave was to count as 3/5 of a free person for taxation and representation. So every 5 slaves would equal 3 free people. This broke the great debate that divided large and small states.
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C. Another compromise plan to resolve the issue of slavery said that Congress would not interfere with the slave trade until 1808. Beginning that year, Congress could limit the slave trade if it chose to. The Northerners, who wanted to abolish slavery throughout the nation and had already banned the slave trade in their states, compromised the Southern states that considered slavery and the slave trade essential to their economies.

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D. The Bill of Rights was proposed to protect the new government from abusing its power. George Mason of Virginia proposed a bill of rights, but it was defeated. Most of the delegates felt that the Constitution already provided adequate protection of the people’s rights.

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E. On September 17, 1787, after four months of discussion and planning, the delegates met to sign the document. All but three delegates signed. The Confederation Congress sent the approved draft for state consideration. Nine of the thirteen states were needed for the Constitution to be approved.