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Issues of Scale Using C o l o r. Scale Issues. What is map scale?. The scale of a map is the relationship between a unit of length on the map and a unit of length on the ground. Map Scales. Verbal scale “One cm represents 100 km” Bar scales (graphical)

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what is map scale
What is map scale?

The scale of a map is the relationship between a unit of length on the map and a unit of length on the ground.

map scales
Map Scales

Verbal scale

“One cm represents 100 km”

Bar scales (graphical)

Representative fraction (RF) 1:24,000

representative fraction
Representative Fraction

A 0.025 inch line on a1:24,000scale map represents50ft (600 in) on the ground

A 0.025 inch line on a1:200,000scale map represents almost417ft on the ground

slide6

Scale Issues

Beware of scale statements

1:200 (“one to two hundred”) does this mean

unit-to-unit

(one inch on the map equals 200 inches on the ground)

or

not unit-to-unit

(one inch on the map equals 200 feet on the ground)

For this course,

all scale statements will be assumed unit-to-unit

slide7

Scale Issues

large scale vs. small scaleTo a geographer:1:2,000,000 is small scale1:200 is large scale

importance of scale
Importance of Scale

Scale of data plays an important role, and frequently causes problems

All spatial phenomena have scale dependent behavior/properties

Be aware of:

Data source scale

Mixing data from different source scales

Appropriateness of output scale

scale issues1
Scale Issues

Data from different sources and scales can vary widely

1:100,000 scale data from USGS DLG

scale issues2
Scale Issues

1:1,000,000 scale data from DCW (DMA)

scale issues3
Scale Issues

1:2,000,000 scale data from USGS DLG

displaying data colors
Displaying data: colors

What can color do?

Label

Measure

Represent or imitate reality

Beautify

From Tufte 1990

Wabern, 1983

displaying data c o l o r s
Displaying data: colors

Primary home heating fuel. U.S. Department of Commerce

From Tufte 1990

displaying data colors1
Displaying data: colors

Primary home heating fuel. U.S. Department of Commerce

From Tufte 1990

color blindness2
Color Blindness

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/

color blindness3
Color Blindness

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/

color blindness4
Color Blindness

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/

color blindness5
Color Blindness

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/

color blindness6
Color Blindness

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/

redundant coding1
Redundant Coding

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/

redundant coding2
Redundant Coding

http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/

color schemes1
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes2
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes3
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes4
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes5
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes6
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes7
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes8
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes9
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes10
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes11
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes12
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes13
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes14
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes15
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

color schemes16
Color Schemes

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html

slide48

Dr. Cynthia Brewer / Department of Geography / The Pennsylvania State University

http://www.personal.psu.edu/cab38/ColorBrewer/ColorBrewer.html

slide50

Homework

Read: “Creating Feature Datasets & Vector Editing” & “Creating and Modifying Tables”

Start working on assignment #4 -- Due April 26.