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C O L O R

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C O L O R

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  1. COLOR

  2. COLOR KEY TOPICS VISIBLE SPECTRUM COLOR VISION “BLACK” AND “WHITE” COLOR ADDITION COLOR SUBTRACTION COMPLIMENTARY COLORS

  3. VIDEO THE PhET SIMULATION CALLED COLOR VISION SHOWS HOW AN OBSERVER CAN PERCEIVE NEW COLORS BY ADDING WAVELENGTHS OF RED, BLUE AND GREEN LIGHT.

  4. VISIBLE SPECTRUM Red Increasing Decreasing Orange Frequency Wavelength Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet Remember – Roy G. Biv

  5. COLOR SENSORS • CONES – SENSITIVE TO COLOR • THE PRODUCE THE SENSATION OF COLOR • RODS – SENSITIVE TO LIGHT • RESPOND TO LIGHT, BUT PRODUCE NO COLOR SENSATION

  6. COLOR RESPONSE OF CONES

  7. THRESHOLD OF COLOR THE INTENSITY OF LIGHT BELOW WHICH NO COLOR IS SEEN. IT IS A RESULT OF THE FACT THAT RODS (LIGHT SENSORS) ARE MORE SENSITIVE THAN CONES (COLOR SENSORS).

  8. COLOR BLINDNESS • THE DISTORTION OF COLOR PERCEPTION DUE TO REDUCED RESPONSE OF THE CONES. • IT IS NORMALLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE REDUCED RESPONSE BY ONE TYPE OF CONE. (USUALLY GREEN CONES IN MALES) • COLOR VISION TEST (online)

  9. THE COLOR OF AN OBJECT THIS VIDEO SHOWS THAT THE COLOR AN OBJECT APPEARS DEPENDS NOT ONLY ON THE WAY THAT AN OBJECT REFLECTS COLORS, BUT ALSO ON THE COLOR OF THE LIGHT THAT IS ILLUMINATING THE OBJECT.

  10. THE COLOR OF AN OBJECT THE COLOR THAT AN OBJECT APPEARS DEPENDS ON • THE SELECTIVE REFLECTION OF WAVELENGTHS OF THE OBJECT. • THE WAVELENGTHS PRESENT IN THE LIGHT THAT IS ILLUMINATING THE OBJECT • THE COLOR RESPONSE OF THE OBSERVER

  11. CLASSIFYING BY COLOR THE COLOR THAT AN OBSERVER ASSIGNS TO AN OBJECT IS THE COLOR THAT IT APPEARS UNDER WHITE LIGHT.

  12. WHITE LIGHT • LIGHT THAT IS MADE UP OF ALL VISIBLE WAVE LENGTHS OF EQUAL INTENSITY. • SLIGHT VARIATION IN THE INTENSITY OF WAVELENGTHS CAN STILL PRODUCE THE SENSATION “WHITE”

  13. THE COLOR WHITE Any combination of wavelengths that stimulates the red, blue and green sensitive cones equally will produce the sensation “white”.

  14. BLACK THE ABSENSE OF LIGHT

  15. VIDEO THIS VIDEO SHOWS THAT AN OBJECT WITH A CHARACTERISTIC COLOR MAY APPEAR BLACK IF IT APPEARS MUCH DARKER THAT ITS SURROUNDINGS.

  16. THE COLOR BLACK • THE SENSATION THAT OCCURS AT NO OR LOW LIGHT INTENSITY. • AN OBJECT MAY APPEAR BLACK IF THE INTENSITY OF IT’S REFLECTED LIGHT IS MUCH LOWER THAN THE SURROUNDINGS SO THAT IT APPEARS THAT NO LIGHT IS COMING FROM THE OBJECT.

  17. COLOR ADDITION THE ILLUMINATION OF OBJECTS WITH MULTIPLE COLORED LIGHT SOURCES.

  18. ADDITIVE PRIMARIES RED-BLUE–GREEN THESE COLORS CAN BE USED TO STIMULATE THE THREE DIFFERENT CONES AND PRODUCE ALL POSSIBLE COLORS.

  19. SIMULATION SURENDRANATH’S CD HAS A SIMULATION OF COLOR ADDITION THAT ALLOWS YOU TO PRODUCE ANY COLOR BY VARYING THE AMOUNT OF RED, BLUE OR GREEN LIGHT PRESENT.

  20. RULES OF COLOR ADDITION THE ADDITIVE PRIMARIES CAN BE USED TO PREDICT THE COLOR OF A WHITE OBJECT RED+BLUE= MAGENTA BLUE+GREEN= CYAN RED+GREEN= YELLOW RED+GREEN + BLUE=WHITE

  21. APPLICATIONS OF COLOR ADDITION • STAGE LIGHTING • COLOR TELEVISION

  22. COMPLIMENTARY COLORS TWO COLORS WHICH WHEN ADDED PRODUCE WHITE RED +CYAN= WHITE BLUE+YELLOW= WHITE GREEN+MAGENTA= WHITE

  23. COMPLIMENTARY COLORS • SURENDRANATH’S SIMULATION OF COLOR ADDITION CAN BE USED TO SHOW COMPLIMENTARY COLORS. • YOU MUST FIRST ADD TWO ADDITIVE PRIMARIES TO PRODUCE A SUBTRACTIVE PRIMARY. • WHEN YOU ADD THE THIRD ADDITIVE PRIMARY TO THIS SUBTRACTIVE PRIMARY, YOU WILL SEE THAT THEY ARE COMPLIMENTAY, BECAUSE THEY PRODUCE WHITE.

  24. COLOR FILTERS The PhET simulation called “Color Vision” shows that color filters are named by the color they pass.

  25. COLOR SUBTRACTION • THE PRODUCTION OF COLOR BY REMOVING WAVELENGTHS OF LIGHT. • SELECTIVE REFLECTION IS THE MOST COMMON PROCESS FOR COLOR SUBTRACTION. • SELECTIVE TRANSMISSION WITH COLOR FILTERS CAN BE USED ALSO.

  26. SIMULATION SURENDRANATH’S CD HAS A SIMULATION OF COLOR SUBTRACTION THAT ALLOWS YOU TO PRODUCE ANY COLOR BY VARYING THE AMOUNT OF YELLOW, CYAN AND MAGENTA LIGHT THAT IS PRESENT.

  27. VIDEO • A FLASHLIGHT CAN BE USED TO SHOW COLOR SUBTRACTION WHEN COLOR FILTERS ARE PLACED IN FRONT OF IT BEAM. • A WHITE PIECE OF PAPER MUST BE PLACED IN FRONT OF THE BEAM TO PRODUCE A REGION OF EQUAL BRIGHTNESS

  28. SUBTRACTIVE PRIMARIES THE SUBTRACTIVE PRIMARIES CAN BE USED TO REMOVE WAVELENGTHS FROM WHITE LIGHT TO PRODUCE ALL OTHER COLORS. YELLOWCYANMAGENTA

  29. RULES OF COLOR SUBTRACTION WHITE –YELLOW=BLUE WHITE –CYAN=RED WHITE –MAGNETA=GREEN

  30. COLOR SUBTRACTION Common applications: • Mixing pigments • Technicolor movies

  31. AFTER-IMAGE • THE CONTINUED RESPONSE OF CONES AND RODS AFTER THE LIGHT STIMULUS IS REMOVED. • THE COLOR OF THE AFTER-IMAGE IS THE COMPLIMENT OF THE STIMULUS.

  32. AFTER IMAGE

  33. SUMMARY VISIBLE SPECTRUM ROYGBIV COLOR VISION CONES AND RODS “BLACK” AND “WHITE” THESE ARE RELATIVE TERMS COLOR ADDITION COLOR TV, STAGE LIGHTING COLOR SUBTRACTION MIXING PIGMENTS, MOVIES IN COLOR COMPLIMENTARY COLORS AFTER IMAGE