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Women’s Higher Education. Growth to Competition Symposium. Gender Inequality in Higher Education and Science: A Global Perspective. Prof. Dr. Nüket Yetiş Riyadh, January 15 , 2013. Aim. To benchmark the policy measures for “Gender Equality” in Higher Education (HE) and

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Gender Inequality in Higher Education and Science: A Global Perspective


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    1. Women’s Higher Education. Growth to Competition Symposium Gender Inequality inHigher Education and Science:A Global Perspective Prof. Dr. NüketYetiş Riyadh, January 15, 2013

    2. Aim To benchmark the policy measures for “Gender Equality” in Higher Education (HE) and Science & Technology (S&T) Prof. Dr. Yetis

    3. Definitions of GPI and GGI Gender Parity Index (GPI)1 • The ratio of female-to-male values of a given indicator. • GPI = 1 Gender Equality • GPI > 1 Male Inequality • GPI < 1 Female Inequality (Gender Inequality – GI) The Gender Gap Index (GGI)2 • Economic participation and opportunity • Educational attainment • Health and survival • Political empowerment. Prof. Dr. Yetis

    4. Globally Best Countries GGI2 Prof. Dr. Yetis

    5. Section Countries GGI2 Prof. Dr. Yetis

    6. Gulf Countries GGI2 King grants women seats in top advisory council for first time18 Prof. Dr. Yetis

    7. Nordic & Gulf Countries Prof. Dr. Yetis

    8. Growth & Competition2,9 * Without petroleum products (US$ billions), Oil accounts for more than 90% of the country's exports and nearly 75% of government revenues: http://www.state.gov/outofdate/bgn/saudiarabia/192423.htm Prof. Dr. Yetis

    9. For sustainable growth and competition science, technology and innovation are on top of the list for necessary conditions, together with Gender Parity. Prof. Dr. Yetis

    10. R&D Expenditures, GERD, Turkey Turkey is the second country by annual growth in GDP spending on R&D 1996-200719 % PPP$ billions Female Head of TUBITAK Source: TurkishStat Prof. Dr. Yetis

    11. R&D Human Resources, Turkey Female Head of TUBITAK ….by annual growth in R&DPersonnelas well. FTE, thousands Source: TurkishStat

    12. Scientific Publications, Turkey Turkey & Korea have the second rank by annual growth in publications 1996-2008. FTE, thousands Source: Thomson’s ISI Web of Science Prof. Dr. Yetis

    13. A nation will export those goods that make most use of the factors with which it is relatively well-endowed. In sophisticated industries a nation does not inherit but creates the most important factors of production, skilled human resources and scientific base.* * cf. Smith/Ricardo10 Prof. Dr. Yetis

    14. Science & Technology Indicators3 * Kuwait + Saudi Arabia Prof. Dr. Yetis

    15. Question? هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الَّذ۪ينَ يَعْلَمُونَ وَالَّذ۪ينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَۜ اِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ اُو۬لُوا الْاَلْبَابِ۟﴿٩﴾ «Say: "Are those equal, those who know and those who do not know? It is those who are endued with understanding that receive admonition. » (Az Zumar 39:9) Prof. Dr. Yetis

    16. Gender Equality in HE and S&T Education Transfer of knowledge skills, and habits through teaching and training Research Formal work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge Innovation Dissemination and usage of knowledge through the solutions that meet theneeds of markets, governments, and society Educational Attainment Employment Opportunity and Access toResources Management and Leadership Work-Life Balance Prof. Dr. Yetis

    17. Gender History of HE in Turkey • 1870, School of Female Teachers Education Dârülmuallimât, (دارالمعلمات) • 1914, First Female University and School of Fine Arts &Conservatoire. InasDarül-Fünunu(إِنَاثادارالفنون) and InasMekteb-iSanayi-iNefiseand Dar-ülElhan • 1917, Female students sentabroad for HE • 1921, Co-education approved by Divan-ı Darülfünun • 1974, First Female Rector • 2009, First female Minister of National Education

    18. HE Enrollment in Turkey6 Total Enrollment 4,1million Female Enrollment 1,9 million

    19. HE Enrollment GPI1,2 Globally, enrollmentof women at the tertiary level has grown almost twice as fast as thatof men since 1970. World average: 1,08 GE Prof. Dr. Yetis

    20. HE Gross Enrollment Ratio (MF)1,2 % World average. 51% Prof. Dr. Yetis

    21. Doctoral Level* Enrollment GPI1,2 GE *ISCED Level 6 Prof. Dr. Yetis

    22. Field of Study, Engineering1,2 Education is the most popular field for female. In some countries, nine out of ten HE education graduates are women. Women in HE are still significantly underrepresented in the fields Engineering, Manufacturing and Construction Prof. Dr. Yetis

    23. Global Agenda • Despite improved access to HE,women face considerable barriers as they move up in research careers. • To frame approaches to investigate gender-based factors that impact learning and sustained interest in STEM* education and workforce.11 • Countering gender stereotypes from kindergarten to university. • Bias, often unconscious, limits women’s progress in scientific and engineering fields.12 * STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Prof. Dr. Yetis

    24. Gender Equality in HE and S&T Education Transfer of knowledge skills, and habits through teaching and training Research Formal work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge Innovation Dissemination and usage of knowledge through the solutions that meet the needs of markets, governments, and society Employment Opportunity and Access to Resources Prof. Dr. Yetis

    25. Teaching Staff GPI1,2 Although as more women are working to obtain S&T degrees, female participation in the S&T labor market doesn’t increase. GE Prof. Dr. Yetis

    26. Female Researchers3 Share of female researchers is slightly more than a quarter of all scientific researchers worldwide. GE % Prof. Dr. Yetis

    27. Stages of a Typical Academic Career3 The career success and promotion as researchers, the gender gap widens following a scissors-shaped pattern Turkey is one of the few countries that have a higher proportion of women in senior academic positions in S&T. % Prof. Dr. Yetis

    28. Global Agenda • Women are often paid less, and are less likely to be promoted, and are consistently clustered at the lower ranking levels of the science system. • Women’s employment options are often restricted by rules and laws, many of which were constructed claiming to protect them. • Unrestricted intersectoral, interdisciplinary and transnational mobility of researchers. • Structural and social inequalities exist in the award evaluation and selection processes. • Systems of defining and evaluating scientific excellence are not as gender neutral as they are claimed to be. Prof. Dr. Yetis

    29. Gender Equality in HE and S&T Education Transfer of knowledge skills, and habits through teaching and training Research Formal work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge Innovation Dissemination and usage of knowledge through the solutions that meet the needs of markets, governments, and society Management and Leadership Prof. Dr. Yetis

    30. Female Heads of HE Institutions, 201013 % EU, DG Research & Innovation Prof. Dr. Yetis

    31. Women on Boards, 201013 GE % EU, DG Research & Innovation Prof. Dr. Yetis

    32. Global Agenda • Women are less represented insenior levels of the S&T workforce.Earmarking and quotas. • Women have had little input into thescience research agenda, and science research has, in turn, oftenneglected their situations, interests and concerns. • Trends of horizontal and vertical segregationacross industry, academia and government workworldwide. Exceptional women may reach high positions, butthe statistics show that there is considerable discrimination. Prof. Dr. Yetis

    33. Reconciliation of Work and Family Life Reconciliation of work and family life require massive individual resources Life Work Balance In the USA, 35 % of unemployed or out of the labor force women doctorates cited family responsibilities as the reason in 200417

    34. Global Agenda • Creating work-life-balance for women and men,shared responsibility for children and the home • The research system needs to be changed in order to explicitly accommodate motherhood • Parental leave policies. Encouraging men to take paternalleave • Kindergartens • Flexible working • Family friendly universities and infrastructures Prof. Dr. Yetis

    35. Conclusion 1 Gender Inequality isnot new and has been on the research and political agenda of almost every country. The countries that took the necessary steps to shift the stereotypical role of women to a more efficient use of women's labor have had the advantage of being more prosperous and providing better lives for everyone. Prof. Dr. Yetis

    36. Conclusion 2 The leaders, governments and politicians have a very crucial role to play in promoting GE. We should change, our, our mothers’& fathers’, mother-in-laws’& father-in-laws’, sisters’&brothers’ , sister-in-laws’& brother-in-laws’ mindsets, values, and attitudes related to the role and aspirations of women with«İlm». Prof. Dr. Yetis

    37. … «İlm» “For ilm(knowledge) is one of those concepts that have dominated Islam and given Muslim civilization its distinctive shape and complexion. In fact, there is no other concept that has been operative as a determinant of Muslim civilization in all its aspects to the same extent as ilm.” F. Rosenthal16 Prof. Dr. Yetis

    38. Thank You nuket.yetis@gmail.com Prof. Dr. Yetis

    39. References 1 • Global EducationDigest 2012, UNESCO http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/GED%20Documents%20C/GED-2012-Complete-Web3.pdf • 2012 Global GenderGapReporthttp://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012.pdf • UNESCO ScienceReport 2010, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001899/189958e.pdf • European Commission:Eurostat–WiS database,2003http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/women/wssi/index_en.html • She Figures 2012Gender in Research and InnovationStatistics and Indicatorshttp://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/she_figures_2012_en.pdf • http://www.imf.org/ • http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2011/download/ • I. Ilkkaracan, “Why So Few Woman in the Labor Market in Turkey?, Feminist Economics 18(1), January 2012, 1–37 • Without petroleum products (US$ billions), Oil accounts for more than 90% of the country's exports and nearly 75% of government revenues: http://www.state.gov/outofdate/bgn/saudiarabia/192423.htm Prof. Dr. Yetis

    40. References 2 • http://kkozak.wz.cz/Porter.pdf • http://ec.europa.eu/publications/booklets/eu_glance/51/en.pdf. • Why So Few? Women in Science,Technology,Engineering,and Mathematics, http://www.aauw.org/learn/research/upload/whysofew.pdf • Woman in Science Fact Sheet, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, December 2012, No.23 http://www.uis.unesco.org/ScienceTechnology/Documents/sti-women-in-science-en.pdf • Science, Technology and Gender:An International Report UNESCO; 2007 http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001540/154045e.pdf • http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-11-848_en.htm • http://www.e-reading-lib.org/bookreader.php/134615/Knowledge_Triumphant.pdf • www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd/2004/pdf/tabh-12.pdf. • 11.1.2012 Washington Post • Knowledge, Networks and Nations report, RoyalSociety, http://royalsociety.org/uploadedFiles/Royal_Society_Content/policy/publications/2011/4294976134.pdf Prof. Dr. Yetis