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Chapter 7. Cells and Organelles. Background. Every living thing is made of cells Robert Hooke coined the term “cells” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovered the 1st living cell. Cell Theory . The Cell Theory states that: All organisms are composed of one or more cells.

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Cells and Organelles

background
Background
  • Every living thing is made of cells
  • Robert Hooke coined the term “cells”
  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovered the 1stliving cell
cell theory
Cell Theory
  • TheCell Theory states that:
    • All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
    • The cell is the basic unit of organization in all organisms.
    • All cells come from pre-existing cells
levels of organization
Levels of organization
  • Smallest living unit is the cell
types of cells
Types of cells
  • Two types of cells
    • Prokaryotes – simple cells, bacteria
    • Eukaryotes – complex cells, animal and plant
inside the cell
Inside the cell
  • Inside the cell there are smaller parts called organelles
    • Organelle means ‘little organ’
plasma membrane
Plasma Membrane
  • The plasma membrane, aka the cell membrane, surrounds the cell
    • It is present in all cells
    • Function – controls what enters and leaves the cell
      • Selectively permeable
      • – selects what moves

through it

plasma membrane1
Plasma membrane
  • Structure
    • Phospholipidbilayer
cell wall
Cell Wall
  • Surrounds some cells
    • Plant cells, fungi cells, and bacteria cells
  • Tough and ridged
  • Made of cellulose
nucleus
Nucleus
  • Controls everything in the cell
    • Reproduction, movement, eating
  • Only present in eukaryotic cells
  • Contains all genetic information
nucleus1
Nucleus
  • Surrounding the nucleus is the nuclear envelope
  • Inside the nucleus is the nucleolus
    • The nucleolus produces an organelle called the ribosomes
ribosome
Ribosome
  • Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis
  • Found all over the cell
    • In cytoplasm
    • On Rough ER
endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Two types: smooth and rough
  • Smooth – stores lipids
  • Rough – after the ribosomes make proteins the rough ER packages them in vesicles to move around, or out of, the cell

Rough because it is covered in ribosomes

golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
  • Modifies and sorts proteins before they are sent out of the cell
  • Notice increased

Surface area

  • Stacked like

pancakes

production of proteins
Production of Proteins
  • Each organelle has a role to play in the production of proteins
vacuole
Vacuole
  • Main function is storage
  • In both plant and animal cells, but they are much larger in plant cells
mitochondria
Mitochondria
  • Produces energy for the cell
  • Does this through a process called cellular respiration
  • Many folds to increase surface area called Cristae
chloroplast
Chloroplast
  • Produce sugar, or food, by using light energy
    • This process is called photosynthesis
  • Found in plant cells and protist cells
lysosome
Lysosome
  • The lysosomes job is to digest things that are no longer needed by the cell
    • Contain special enzymes to

do this

stem cells
Stem cells
  • Eukaryotic organisms begin as a mass of cells
    • Each cell has the same DNA so how do we end up with hundreds of cell types?
    • It has to do with

the DNA!!

stem cells1
Stem Cells
  • Cell differentiation- happens only specific parts of the DNA are activated.
    • the parts of the DNA that are activated determine the function and specialized structure of a cell.
  • Once a cell is differentiated it can notbe reversed.
stem cells2
Stem Cells
  • Stem cells have not differentiated yet
  • They have the ability to become any cell!
    • Embryonic stem cells – found in the embryo
    • Adult stems cells – found in adult living organisms (example – bone marrow)
    • Both types have potential to be come specialized cells
    • Important because it can turn into ANY cell!!!!
    • CONTROVERSIES???
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