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World War I

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  1. World War I Unit 8Notes

  2. World War I Pre-Test • Communism was one of the leading causes of World War I. • The United States was eager to support the war. • The Allies and Central Powers were the two opposing forces in the war. • World War I was the first war to use planes in warfare. • The Germans introduced U-boats to sink opposing ships.

  3. World War I Pre-Test • Millions of men were drafted to fight in the war for the United States. • Blacks were not allowed to fight for the United States. • The government had no financial problems when joining the war. • The United States citizens’ support for the war was crucial to the economic mobilization to help war efforts. • The United States joined with Germany to finally win the war.

  4. militarism alliances imperialism nationalism Franz Ferdinand Allies (Allied Powers) Central Powers propaganda U-boat Bolshevik Revolution Czar Nicholas II Vladimir Lenin Woodrow Wilson Lusitania Zimmerman Note Fourteen Points Treaty of Versailles reparations War Guilt Clause League of Nations Unit 8Key Terms

  5. What caused the war? • The M.A.I.N. causes of the war were: • Militarism • Alliance system • Imperialism • Nationalism

  6. The M.A.I.N. Causes of the War • Militarism • fascination with the glory of war and the power of the military • led to countries building up large standing armies (armies that were always ready to fight) • Alliance system • agreements among nations to help each other if war broke out • some countries signed treaties while others simply had an entente (an understanding)

  7. The M.A.I.N. Causes of the War • Imperialism • the race for empire and for new markets and raw materials led to increased competition among imperial nations • European countries competed fiercely for colonies in Africa • Nationalism • intense national and cultural loyalty • imperial nations used nationalism to justify taking over other nations (Europeans in Africa) • smaller countries used nationalism as a reason for demanding their independence (Serbia’s desire for Slavic unity on the Balkan Peninsula)

  8. “The Powder Keg”

  9. 1914: Participant Timeline • June 28 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, was murdered in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Gavrilo Princip • July 28 – Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia • July 29-30 – Russia, bound by a treaty with Serbia, mobilized its army • August 1 – Germany, treaty bound with Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia

  10. The Archduke and his Assassin

  11. 1914: Participant Timeline • August 1 – France, bound by a treaty with Russia, mobilized its army • August 3 – Germany declared war on France • August 4 – Germany invaded neutral Belgium • August 4 – Great Britain, bound by a treaty with Belgium, declared war on Germany • August 4 – President Woodrow Wilson declared the United States officially neutral • August 6 – Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia • October 29 – Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Central Powers

  12. World War I: Who’s Who • Allied Powers • France • Great Britain • Russia (until late 1917) • United States (beginning in April 1917) • Central Powers • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Ottoman Empire • Bulgaria

  13. New Weapons that Changed the War • machine guns • flamethrowers • poison gas • airplanes • tanks • submarines

  14. Early Machine Guns

  15. Flamethrowers

  16. Poison Gas

  17. Poisonous Statistics

  18. Airplanes

  19. Tanks

  20. Submarines (U-boats)

  21. Where did the fighting take place? • 3 main fronts • Western Front – France/Belgium • Eastern Front – Eastern Germany/Russia • Italian Front – Southwest Austria-Hungary • fighting was primarily trench warfare • led to stalemate on the battlefield – very little territory was ever gained • deadly area between the trenches was known as “no man’s land”

  22. militarism alliances imperialism nationalism Franz Ferdinand Allies (Allied Powers) Central Powers propaganda U-boat Bolshevik Revolution Czar Nicholas II Vladimir Lenin Woodrow Wilson Lusitania Zimmerman Note Fourteen Points Treaty of Versailles reparations War Guilt Clause League of Nations Unit 8Key Terms

  23. Why did the U.S. enter the war? • both the Allies and Central Powers tried to win American support but initially the U.S. declared neutrality • Great Britain was a traditional trading partner with the United States – a friendship that made continued trade with Germany very difficult • American businesses made loans to the Allies and a German victory would ensure that these loans would not be repaid

  24. Why did the U.S. enter the war? • the U.S. entered on the side of the Allies for the following reasons: • Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare • sinking of the Lusitania in 1915 • sinking of the Sussex in 1916 – Germany agrees to stop unrestricted submarine warfare • sinking of six U.S. merchant ships without any warning in February/March 1917 • public opinion in America turned against the Central Powers because of unrestricted submarine warfare and propaganda • the Zimmerman telegram

  25. U.S. Propaganda Posters

  26. U.S. Propaganda Posters

  27. Costs of War

  28. Why did Russia quit in 1917? • even before World War I, Russians began to express discontent over economic, political, and social issues • high taxes • working conditions • political and religious freedom • the devastation of the war made people even more upset with the government of Czar Nicholas II who did little to ease the suffering of his people

  29. Why did Russia quit in 1917? • in March of 1917, food riots broke out in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) • starving people and soldiers formed a soviet (committee) to represent their interests • between March and October 1917, these soviets struggled for control of the country • many soviets were made up of socialists and the most radical socialists were the Bolsheviks

  30. Why did Russia quit in 1917? • in November of 1917, the Bolsheviks, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, seized control of the Russian government • by December, Russia had declared an armistice with the Central Powers and in March 1918, signed a separate peace treaty with Germany (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) • the Bolsheviks would ruthlessly put down opposition during a civil war, murder Czar Nicholas and his family, and establish a new nation, the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1921

  31. The Aftermath of War

  32. Key Questions to Consider • When and how did the fighting stop? • Who were the Big Four and what was their task? • Who did not participate in the treaty talks? • What was Woodrow Wilson’s plan called and what was its goal? • How did the Allies differ in their desired treatment of Germany and the Central Powers after the war? • What was the League of Nations? • What were the key points to the Treaty of Versailles? • Why did the League of Nations struggle?

  33. When and how did the fighting stop? • the American Expeditionary Force helped to turn back the final push of the Germans on the western front in France in 1918 • on November 11, 1918 at 11:00 in the morning, Germany signed an armistice (cease-fire) and the fighting ended

  34. Who were the Big Four and what was their task? • they were the leaders of 4 of the 27 Allied countries who met in Paris to make treaties to end the war • they included: • Woodrow Wilson (USA) • David Lloyd George (UK) • Georges Clemenceau (FR) • Vittorio Orlando (ITA) • their task was to set the terms for the five defeated nations: Germany, Austria, Hungary (now two nations), Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire

  35. Who did not participate in the treaty talks? • Russia did not attend the meeting and had no voice in the matter (despite the fact that millions of Russians had died during the war) • the defeated nations were forbidden from taking part in the treaty talks • Germany • Austria • Hungary • Ottoman Empire • Bulgaria

  36. What was Woodrow Wilson’s plan for the post-war world called and what was its goal? • Wilson’s plan was called the Fourteen Points • “make the world safe for democracy” • “lasting peace” • a world that was “fit and safe to live in” • goal was to correct the problems that caused the war and bring about a peace that would last • some of the suggestions Wilson made were: • end secret alliances • limit military buildup • protect the freedom of the seas • ensure the right to self-rule to all peoples or nations • create a “general assembly of nations” to settle disputes

  37. How did the Allies differ in their desired treatment of Germany and the Central Powers after the war? • Woodrow Wilson wanted to make sure that the treaties signed would create a “lasting peace” and would be fair • Other Allies (France in particular) wanted to punish Germany and make them pay for the destruction of the war

  38. What was the League of Nations? • one of Wilson’s Fourteen Points called for the creation of a peacekeeping organization called the League of Nations • the goal of this organization was to settle international disputes peacefully and avoid another worldwide calamity (disastrous war)

  39. What were the key points to the Treaty of Versailles? • created the League of Nations • “War Guilt Clause” – forced Germany to accept all responsibility for the war • reparations - $33 billion to be paid to the Allies • military restrictions • no air force • limited German army to 100,000 soldiers • Rhineland was demilitarized (no military of any kind could be there) • no U-boats • Germany lost territory – Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France and overseas possessions were lost as well • 9 new countries were formed in Europe

  40. Why did the League of Nations struggle? • some countries, especially the United States, never joined the League of Nations • unanimous consent (everyone had to agree) was required for decisions to be made • it lacked the ability to enforce its own decisions – nonmember nations could just ignore the League’s decisions • no army – had to rely on “moral persuasion” (the hope that a country would do the right thing because it was the right thing)

  41. Zimmerman Telegram