Phrases & Clauses What are they? How are they different?
Remember clauses? Independent clause: Pat hates notecards. Pat is tired. (one contains an action verb and an object, the other contains a linking verb and a predicate adjective.) Dependent clause: Because Pat hates notecards (we have a subordinating conjuction MAKING the independent clause DEPENDENT on something else to complete the thought…) Do you notice that both INDEPENDENT clauses & DEPENDENT clauses contain a verb & its subject? One expresses a complete thought (making it independent) but the other does not (making it dependent)
The main difference: • ClausesDO HAVE BOTH a subject & a verb • PhrasesDO NOT have BOTH a subject & a verb
PHRASES:you can do this! Ready??
1: Prepositional Phrase • Prepositional Phrase = Preposition + Noun • from the house = from(prep) +(noun)the house • He ran quickly from the house. • behind a rock = behind(prep)+(noun)a rock • I saw a girl behind a rock.
1: Prepositional Phrase aroundthe track and nearthe field duringthe movie abouthis messy room
VERBALS & VERBAL PHRASES • Verbals are formed from verbs but are used as adjectives (participial), nouns (gerunds) and adverbs: Remember the Participle? A verb used as an adjective • Present Participles end in –ing • The singing canary • Past Participles end in –ed • The baked chicken
Participial Phrase Consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements the participle has. THE ENTIRE PHRASE IS USED AS AN ADJECTIVE. Speaking eloquently,Julien enthralled the audience. (The participial phrase modifies the noun Julien. The adverb eloquently modifies the present participle Speaking.)
Participial Phrase Nodding his head, the defendant admitted his guilt. Let’s start with what we know how to do: • Find the VERB: _________ • Ask who or what is doing the “verbing”? ________ • Is the verb ACTIVE or LINKING? • If Active, is there an OBJECT? • If Linking, is there a predicate Nominative,/Adjective? • What’s left? _______________ • CAN THIS BE A CLAUSE? WHY/WHY NOT? • Is there a VERB? • What type of verb? Active/Linking? • Is there an object? • Is there a SUBJECT in this portion? • If not, what is this modifying?
Let’s MAP it out: Remember the BICYCLE? Nodding his head, the defendant admitted his guilt. What’s the SUBJECT WHEEL? What’s the PREDICATE WHEEL? Nodding his head, the defendant admitted his guilt.
Let’s drop the “Bicycle” format… defendant admitted guilt his the Nodding head his This is called “diagramming” – and really helps visualize how a sentence is broken down.
Look at the Participial Phrase defendant admitted guilt his the Nodding head his It is a phrase because it does NOT contain a subject, and it modifies a NOUN (defendant)
Gerund Phrases Remember GERUNDS? (verbs used as nouns, by adding “ing” to the end? I swim every day. (used as a verb) Swimming is by favorite sport. (used as a noun) OK – gerunds can also make up phrases too…called…(wait for it) GERUND PHRASES
Gerund Phrase – as SUBJECT Studying regularly leads to better grades. “Studying regularly” is a gerund phrase ACTING as the SUBJECT
Gerund Phrases (as Object) At what age did you begin playing football? “playing football” is actually a gerund phrase (used as a noun…which, in this sentence is the OBJECT of the sentence “begin” what? (active verb) “playing football” (object of verb)
Gerund Phrase – as Predicate Nominative One important part of a healthy lifestyle is eating fresh fruit. “Eating fresh fruit” is a gerund phrase that is a Predicate Nominative in this sentence (remember the whole linking verb thing from the last unit??)
3: Infinitive Phrase • To + verb = Infinitive phrase • If you have ever studied a foreign language, you might remember that verbs are always studied w/the infinitive first: • tolove(the infinitive form) • I love • you love • he/she/it loves • we love • you love • they love
3: Infinitive Phrase cont’d • Infinitive phrases begin with the infinitive form of the verb • Examples: • torun a mile • tostart over • todo homework all night • to win the contest • to wake up early
The tricky “to” • The word “to” is found in BOTH prepositionaland infinitivephrases
CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! • tothe football stadium(prepositional) • totheteacher (prepositional) Prepositional Phrases: Infinitive Phrases: • toruna mile • tofinishmy homework
Appositive Phrases It’s ok – it’s not as scary as it sounds… Put simply…an Appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun TO MODIFY IT. I devote my Sundays to my favorite hobby, sleeping. The artist Prince changed his name. Both winners, Dan and Jake, will win mountain bikes.
Appositive Phrase Is a GROUP of words functioning together as an appositive: The Alaska Moose, the largest deer in the world, inhabits the Kenai Peninsula.
Clauses: 3 types Have BOTH Subject& Verb
Clause #1: Independent Clause(aka:SENTENCEor MAIN CLAUSE)
Independent Clause • Independent clauses have asubject&verband can stand alone. • Examples: • The doctorfinishedthe examination. • Studentsleave campus after class.
Clause #2: dependent Clause(aka:the”Cliffhanger”)
Dependent Clause • Dependent clauses have subjects & verbs, but they cannot stand alone
Dependent Clause • Dependent clauses usually begin with subordinating conjunctions such as although, because, when, since, if, unless… Examples: • BecauseIleftearly • Ifwefind my notebook Subordinating conjunction subjectverb…
Dependent Clauses • Dependent clauses require a complete thought to make them complete… • Written alone, dependent clauses create suspense for what’s to come…like a “cliffhanger”:
Dependent Clauses Example of a dependent clause: • Because a rattlesnakehas made a home under our bed…
Dependent Clauses Dependent clauses often begin or end sentences: • Because a rattlesnakehas madea home under our bed… (dependent clause) + • Wepurchased a mongoose to sleep with us. (sentence/main clause)
Dependent Clauses • Because a rattlesnakehas madea home under our bed, we purchased a mongoose to sleep with us.
Dependent Clauses • We purchased a mongoose to sleep with us because a rattlesnakehas madea home under our bed.
Examples of Dependent Clauses • AlthoughIspent three hours studying, • Because the childrenhad hidden the key, (Note how each of these requires something to follow it.)
Examples of Dependent Clauses • Ifstudentssign up early, • Unless the weatherprevents travel, • Wheneveryonefinished dinner, (Note how each of these requires something to follow it.)
Examples of Dependent Clauses • After the scheduleis published, • Before a hurricanehits an area, (Note how each of these requires something to follow it.)
Clause #3: Relative Clause(who, Which, That )
Relative Clauses • Relative clauses are easy to recognize. • They begin with WHO, WHICH, or THAT.
Relative Clauses They are not questions, but part of sentences.
Relative Clauses • Examples: • Martin, who usually finishes first, was unable to beat my record. • Pasta, which used to be included in most diets, has been replaced by high-protein foods. • Toys that the dog chewed upmust be thrown away.
2 words can make clauses a little tricky: Before After
CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! • before and after can appear in either prepositional phrases or dependent clauses.
CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! • Prepositional phrases: • afterthe storm • beforethe alarm • afterlunch • before my nap • afterwork • before the holiday
CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! Dependent clauses: • afterthe stormended • beforethe alarmrang • afterwe leftwork • beforethe doctorarrived • afterIreceived your call • beforethe judgemakes his ruling
The Adjective Clause An ADJECTIVE CLAUSE is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun. It USUALLY follows the word or words it is modifying, and it tells WHAT KIND or WHICH ONE. Ex: The report that Diego wrote was on the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Relative clause (begins with “that”) noun
The NOUN clause A NOUN CLAUSE is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun. It may be used as a subject, predicate nominative, direct object, indirect object, object of preposition, or an appositive. (Basically, anything that a NOUN can do – a NOUN CLAUSE can do too!) SUBJECT: How students can apply for college loans was the speaker’s topic. PREDICATE NOMINATIVE: My suggestion is that we all meet again tomorrow. D.O: I wonder whether Columbus was truly the first European to explore the Americas. I.O: Mrs. Romero offers whoever completes additional assignments extra credit.
NOUN clause (one more…) The INFINITIVE clause… Consists of an infinitive with a subject, along with any modifiers and complements the infinitive has. The entire infinitive clause can function as the DIRECT OBECT of the action verb. Judy’s father expected her to finish her homework. D.O. Infinitive Phrase Simple Math (what??): Direct Object + infinitive phrase = INFINITIVE CLAUSE See how the D.O. is now acting as the SUBJECT of that clause?