What do these phrases mean? ‘Gotta’ go, gotta’ go, gotta’ go right now!....I’m lovin’ it... The quicker picker upper... Just do it... Zoom Zoom... Have you heard these slogans before? Where?
Objectives • Students will compare and analyze ad campaigns in order to evaluate advertising and marketing strategies. • Students will apply advertising and marketing strategies in order to create an ad campaign. • Students will write a persuasive paper using their newly acquired skills.
Standards • 2-3 Analyze informational texts for indicators of bias (for example, word choice and the exclusion and inclusion of particular information). • 2-4Create responses to informational texts through a variety of methods (for example, drawings, written works, oral and auditory presentations, discussions, and media productions). • 2-7 Identify the use of propaganda techniques (including card stacking, plain folks and transfer) in informational texts. • 5-4 Create persuasive pieces (for example, editorials, essays, or speeches) that support a clearly stated position with concrete evidence.
Whose slogan is: “Maybe she’s born with it, maybe it’s…” 1 Super Slogans
Whose slogan is: “I’m Loving It” 2 Super Slogans
Whose slogan is: “We bring good things to life.” 3 Super Slogans
Whose slogan is: “Have it Your Way.” 6 Super Slogans
What is Propaganda, and why do we care? • Propaganda designers have been putting messages into television commercials, news programs, magazine ads, and other things we read and see for years. These messages have been carefully designed to influence our opinions, emotions, attitudes and behavior. Their purpose is to persuade us to believe in something or to do somethingthat we would not normally believe or do. These messages have been designed to benefit someone, and that someone may not be you!
Is propaganda always negative? • People often think of propaganda as something negative, as in a con or a lie. But propaganda really doesn't have anything to do with negative or positive. It's a technique. The word propaganda refers to anytechnique that attempts to influence the opinions, emotions, attitudes or behavior of a groupin order to benefit the sponsor. • The purpose of propaganda is to persuade
This very clever piece of reversepsychological warfare was a postcard, created by the U.S. Army, and freely distributed to U.S. troops. This postcard had three main purposes.Message/Purpose #1: It was created to encourage soldiers to write. Soldiers who write and receive mail are happier.Message/Purpose #2: It was designed to instill confidence and a warlike spirit to people who see them. The use of a circle around a map implies global effort and containment. This emblem or logo-like design also images global power and world leadership.Message/Purpose #3: It was worded to provide a touch of humor to lighten the mood of those sending and receiving these postcards. What messages do you think are hidden in this card that might support the phrase "Summer Tour 1990"?
Hidden Messages (Summer Tour 1990). How about: the sea, the sand, the red, white & blue banner colors in the lettering? This was also designed to appeal to the musical interest of young U.S. troops. Bands have "Summer Tours". Propaganda does not rely on pictures or words or sound. Color and design can carry many hidden messages.
Propaganda • pro·pa·gan·da • Function: noun • Etymology: New Latin, from Congregatio de propaganda fide Congregation for propagating the faith, organization established by Pope Gregory XV †1623 • Date: 1718 • 1: the spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person2: ideas, facts, or allegations spread deliberately to further one's cause or to damage an opposing cause; also: a public action having such an effect • — pro·pa·gan·dist\-dist\noun or adjective • — pro·pa·gan·dis·tic\-ˌgan-ˈdis-tik\adjective • — pro·pa·gan·dis·ti·cal·ly\-ti-k(ə-)lē\adverb
Common propaganda techniques • plain folks appeal (“I’m one of you”) • testimonials (“I saw the aliens, sure as I’m standing here”) • bandwagon effect (everybody’s doing it) • card-stacking (presenting only one side of the story) • transfer (positive or negative associations, such as guilt by association) • glittering generalities (idealistic or loaded language, such as “freedom” “empowering,” “family values”) • name calling (“racist,” “tree hugger,” “femi-nazi”)
Plain Folks • The plain folks propaganda technique was another of the seven main techniques identified by the IPA, or Institute for Propaganda Analysis. The plain folks device is an attempt by the propagandist to convince the public that his views reflect those of the common person and that they are also working for the benefit of the common person. The propagandist will often attempt to use the accent of a specific audience as well as using specific idioms or jokes. Also, the propagandist, especially during speeches, may attempt to increase the illusion through imperfect pronunciation, stuttering, and a more limited vocabulary. Errors such as these help add to the impression of sincerity and spontaneity. This technique is usually most effective when used with glittering generalities, in an attempt to convince the public that the propagandist views about highly valued ideas are similar to their own and therefore more valid. When confronted by this type of propaganda, the subject should consider the proposals and ideas separately from the personality of the presenter.
plain folks appeal • Based on the “common man,” “person on the street” or the “little guy” • A politician calls himself a “populist” or “man of the people” • “In this time of change, government must take the side of working families.” (George Bush, address at the Republican National Convention, Sept. 3, 2004.
Plain Folks • This technique has a person or cause being associated with regular people. Candidates who are just like you – they put their pants on one leg at a time too.
Plain Folks • Identifies product/idea with a locality or country • Practical product for ordinary people. Like a good neighbor…
Plain Folks "We are for Adolf Hitler!"
Testimonials • Testimonials are another of the seven main forms of propaganda identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis. Testimonials are quotations or endorsements, in or out of context, which attempt to connect a famous or respectable person with a product or item. Testimonials are very closely connected to the transfer technique, in that an attempt is made to connect an agreeable person to another item. Testimonials are often used in advertising and political campaigns. When coming across testimonials, the subject should consider the merits of the item or proposal independently of the person of organization giving the testimonial.
testimonials • Anecdotal evidence for diet pills, herbal remedies, new-age crystals, etc. • Anecdotal evidence of alien abductions, psychic phenomena • “I saw what looked to be a hairy human figure, about 6-6 1/2' tall, running behind my bike. Scared the crap out of me, so I hit the throttle and did what I could to get out of there.” (from the Bigfoot Field Researchers Organizations Website, report # 13424 Jarod Fogle for Subway
Testimonial • A celebrity or expert who endorse a product, candidate, or idea. Think about all of the commercials with celebrities. The celebrity may not always be qualified to speak on the subject.
Testimonial • Statement endorsing an idea/product by a prominent person. • Product does not have to be related to “star’s” field. • Commonly uses musical artists, sports giants, actors/actresses
Bandwagon • Bandwagon is one of the most common techniques in both wartime and peacetime and plays an important part in modern advertising. Bandwagon is also one of the seven main propaganda techniques identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis in 1938. Bandwagon is an appeal to the subject to follow the crowd, to join in because others are doing so as well. Bandwagon propaganda is, essentially, trying to convince the subject that one side is the winning side, because more people have joined it. The subject is meant to believe that since so many people have joined, that victory is inevitable and defeat impossible. Since the average person always wants to be on the winning side, he or she is compelled to join in. However, in modern propaganda, bandwagon has taken a new twist. The subject is to be convinced by the propaganda that since everyone else is doing it, they will be left out if they do not. This is, effectively, the opposite of the other type of bandwagon, but usually provokes the same results. Subjects of bandwagon are compelled to join in because everyone else is doing so as well. When confronted with bandwagon propaganda, we should weigh the pros and cons of joining in independently from the amount of people who have already joined, and, as with most types of propaganda, we should seek more information.
bandwagon effect • a “herd” mentality, following the crowd, or “counting heads” • An employee caught pilfering says, “everyone else does it.” • “A majority of Americans - 57% - say they believe in psychic phenomena such as ESP, telepathy or experiences that can’t be explained by normal means.” (CBS poll, April 28, 2002)
Bandwagon • Hop on the bandwagon or else you don’t fit in. Everyone is doing it, so you should too. This technique is contrived peer pressure – no one wants to be left out or behind.
Bandwagon • persuasive technique that invites you to join the crowd. • Everybody’s doing it! • Often uses weasel words Everyone in Auburn is supportingBob Riley. Shouldn’t you be part of the winning team?
Bandwagon • Everyone listens to the Fuhrer
Card Stacking • Card stacking, or selective omission, is one of the seven techniques identified by the IPA, or Institute for Propaganda Analysis. It involves only presenting information that is positive to an idea or proposal and omitting information contrary to it. Card stacking is used in almost all forms of propaganda, and is extremely effective in convincing the public. Although the majority of information presented by the card stacking approach is true, it is dangerous because it omits important information. The best way to deal with card stacking is to get more information.
Whose slogan is: “Buy it. Sell it. Love it.” 7 Super Slogans
Whose slogan is: “Live in your world, play in ours.” 8 Super Slogans
Whose slogan is: “Do you have the bunny inside?” 9 Super Slogans
Whose slogan is “Good to the last drop.” B Super Slogans
Transfer • Transfer is a technique used to carry over the authority and approval of something we respect and revere to something the propagandist would have us accept. Propagandists often employ symbols (e.g., waving the flag) to stir our emotions and win our approval. The Institute for Propaganda Analysis suggests we ask ourselves these questions when confronted with this technique. What is the speaker trying to pitch? What is the meaning of the thing the propagandist is trying to impart? Is there a legitimate connection between the suggestion made by the propagandist and the person or product? Is there merit in the proposal by itself? When confronted with this technique, question the merits of the idea or proposal independently of the convictions about other persons, ideas, or proposals.
Transfer • Propagandists transfer the fame, prestige, or reliability of something or someone to an issue that may or may not be related. Any politician who publicly says a prayer is transferring religion to their image. Use of a flag or patriotic leader is also commonly utilized. The Nazis justified treatment of the Jews by “proving” their inferiority through their own science.
transfer • Projecting good or bad qualities from one person or group onto another • The positive or negative association will “rub off” on the other person or group • Politicians posing next to the flag, with troops, with veterans to appear patriotic • An ad for a dietary supplement features a researcher in a white lab coat with a clip board to make the product appear more scientific
TransferPositive feelings/desires are connected to a product/user. Transfers positive feelings we have of something we know to something we don’t.This technique relies heavily on symbolism. *Love/ Popularity *Fame *Wealth *Power During the Kerry vs. Bush campaign an e-mail through the internet showed similar physical characteristics between John Kerry and Frankenstein.
Glittering Generalities • Propagandists employ vague, sweeping statements (often slogans or simple catchphrases) using language associated with values and beliefs deeply held by the audience without providing supporting information or reason. They appeal to such notions as honor, glory, love of country, desire for peace, freedom, and family values. The words and phrases are vague and suggest different things to different people but the implication is always favorable. It cannot be proved true or false because it really says little or nothing at all. The Institute of Propaganda Analysis suggests a number of questions we should ask ourselves if we are confronted with this technique: What do the slogans or phrases really mean? Is there a legitimate connection between the idea being discussed and the true meaning of the slogan or phrase being used? What are the merits of the idea itself if it is separated from the slogans or phrases?
glittering generalities • Using virtuous words; democracy, freedom, justice, patriotism, family values, motherhood, progress • Embracing values at a high level of abstraction • “change” • “green” • “reform” • “patriotism is always more than just loyalty to a place on a map or a certain kind of people. Instead, it is also loyalty to America’s ideals – ideals for which anyone can sacrifice, or defend, or give their last full measure of devotion.” Barack Obama, June 30, 2008