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E_English Grammar Course

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  1. E_English Grammar Course Chapter I Elements of grammar

  2. Issues 1. Introduction to Grammar 2. Morphemes and Words 3. Ways of word formation 4. Parts of speech 5. Parts of a sentence 6. Types of phrases, clauses, sentences

  3. 1/1 Introduction to Grammar 1 Grammar In global sense In narrow sense

  4. 2/1 Introduction to Grammar 1 Grammar In global sense • equals competence, a body of knowledge that a • native speaker has about his/her language which • enables him/her to speak and understand it. • includes word and sentence structure rules, • pronunciation rules, meaning of words/ sentences, • and discourse organization rules. In narrow sense

  5. 3/1 Introduction to Grammar 1 • refers only to the formation of the word and sentence • structures. • consists of morphology, the study of words and word • formation, and syntax, the study of phrases, clauses, • and sentences. Grammar In global sense In narrow sense

  6. 1/2 Morphemes and Words 2 discourse sentence phrase word morpheme

  7. 2/2 Morphemes and Words 2 discourse I found myself useless. sentence phrase hated enjoying word hated, enjoying I actually felt tired of sitting doing nothing. And I hated enjoying the unemployment benefit. I found myself useless. Then I decided to look for a job. morpheme enjoy, -ing

  8. 3/2 Lexical item – meaning 2 • = A basic unit of meaning … • A single word • (E.g.: man, boy) • Less than a word • (E.g.: terr in terror) • More than one word • (E.g.: to rain dogs and cats) LEXICAL ITEM

  9. 4/2 Lexical item – meaning 2 MEANING LEXICAL ITEM & Lexical item and meaning has arbitrary relationship.

  10. 5/2 Morpheme - Word 2 = A minimal meaningful unit E.g.: re/try boy/s MORPHEME

  11. 6/2 Morpheme - Word 2 = An independent meaningful unit. E.g.: try boy turn return WORD

  12. 7/2 Types of morphemes 2

  13. 8/2 Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 2

  14. 9/2 Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 2

  15. 10/2 Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 2

  16. 11/2 Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 2

  17. 12/2 Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 2

  18. 13/2 Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes 2 • Work in groups of 3 • Each group make a list of 5 inflectional and 5 derivational morphemes • The fastest group win the game

  19. 1/3 Morphological processes of word formation 3 adding a prefix to the base E.g.: Non-stop Predict Prefixation:

  20. 2/3 Morphological processes of word formation 3 adding a suffix to the base E.g.: Economist Grammatical Suffixation:

  21. 3/3 Morphological processes of word formation 3 a change of word-classes without affix. E.g.: Import (n), (v) Abstract (n), (adj) Conversion:

  22. 4/3 Morphological processes of word formation 3 word formation from two or more bases. E.g. Greenhouse effect Desktop computer Compounding:

  23. 5/3 Morphological processes of word formation 3 shortening a word E.g.: Phone from telephone Photo from photograph Flu from influenza Clipping:

  24. 6/3 Morphological processes of word formation 3 word formation from two or more either identical or slightly different elements. E.g.: Goody-goody Tick-tock Seesaw Wishy-washy Tip-top Reduplication:

  25. 7/3 Morphological processes of word formation 3 word formation from two separate forms. E.g.: Motel from motor and hotel Smog from smoke and fog. Blending:

  26. 8/3 Morphological processes of word formation 3 word formation from initial letters of a series of words. E.g.: TV from television FAQ from frequently asked question. Acronym:

  27. 9/3 Morphological processes of word formation 3 E.g.: aspirin Others Coinage E.g.: boss, piano Borrowing E.g.: opt (option) Backformation E.g.: conduct Sound + stress interchange E.g.: kiwi Sound imitation

  28. 10/3 Morphological processes of word formation 3 • Each student receives an affix • Group yourselves into prefixes and suffixes • Each student gives an example of his/her affix

  29. 1/4 Parts of speech 4 Parts of speech Open class Closed system

  30. 2/4 Parts of speech 4 Parts of speech Open class Closed system • comprises functional words such as articles, demonstratives,pronounsprepositions, conjunctions, and interjections

  31. 3/4 Parts of speech 4 Parts of speech Open class Closed system • Features: • unextendable number of members • reciprocally exclusive • reciprocally defining • unstressed in spoken language

  32. 4/4 Parts of speech 4 Parts of speech • comprises notional/ lexical words such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs Open class Closed system

  33. 5/4 Parts of speech 4 Parts of speech • Features: • extendable number of members • combinability • having certain syntactic functions • stressed words in spoken language Open class Closed system

  34. 6/4 Parts of speech 4 • Decide if the following words belong to closed-system or open class blue head the that summarize which you • open • open • closed • closed • open • closed • closed

  35. 1/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Parts of a sentence Predicate Operator Subject

  36. 2/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Parts of a sentence Predicate Operator Subject What is being discussed – theme. E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncle every day.

  37. 3/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Parts of speech Predicate Operator Subject What is being said about the subject – rheme. E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncle every day.

  38. 4/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Parts of speech • What helps to change a sentence into: • - interrogative • E.g.: Do her parents visit her every day? • negative • E.g.: Her parents do not visit her every day. • - emphatic • E.g.: Her parents do visit her every day. Predicate Operator Subject

  39. 5/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Parts of speech Predicate Operator Subject • include BE & HAVE • E.g.: I am a student and I have a part-time job. Lexical verbs • include BE & HAVE • E.g.: I am cooking. Primary Auxiliaries Modal • include will, shall, should, can, might, etc. • E.g.: I can cook.

  40. 6/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

  41. + Cs (1) Intensive + A (obli) (2) intransitive (3) mono-transitive (4) Extensive transitive di-transitive (5) complex-transitive (6,7) 7/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

  42. 8/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

  43. 9/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Sentence elements Stative Subject Not progressive form Verb E.g.: The food he cooked tasted very good. Object Dynamic Progressive form Complement E.g.: She is tasting the food he’s cooked. Adverbial

  44. direct (Od) indirect (Oi) 10/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement E.g.: He sent me (Oi) a postcard (Od). Adverbial

  45. Subject Complement (Cs) Object Complement (Co) 11/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Sentence elements E.g.: His brother who is a teacher(Cs) considers me his best friend (Co). Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

  46. optional obligatory 12/5 Parts of a sentence 5 Sentence elements Subject Verb E.g.: He goes fishing on Tuesday. (Aopt) His birthday is on Tuesday. (A obli) Object Complement Adverbial

  47. 1/6 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 6 Syntax Clause Sentence Phrase

  48. 2/6 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 6 Syntax Clause Sentence Phrase E.g.: All these books are mine. Noun phrase E.g.: John has been looking for Jane. Verb phrase E.g.: Tom is a very interesting man. Adjective phrase E.g.: He ran quite fast. Adverb phrase E.g.: He’s lecturing on the new technology. Prepositional phrase

  49. 3/6 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 6 Syntax Clause Sentence Phrase In terms of Clause’s elements & verb patterns In terms of functions of the clause In terms of kinds of verb phrases

  50. 4/6 Types of phrases, clauses, sentences 6 Syntax Clause Sentence Phrase • SVA: John is at home • SVCs: John is a doctor. • SVO: John has cured many serious patients. • SVOO: He gives his patients the same • prescription. • SVOA: He put the prescription in a secret file. • SVOCo: He calls his patients big fish. • SV: He’s going out. In terms of Clause’s elements & verb patterns In terms of functions of the clause In terms of kinds of verb phrases