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Joints. Joints (articulation). Defined : A point of contact between bones, between cartilage and bones, or between teeth and bones. When two bones articulate with one another we say that the 2 bones form a joint. Arthrology = study of joints

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joints articulation
Joints (articulation)
  • Defined: A point of contact between bones, between cartilage and bones, or between teeth and bones.
    • When two bones articulate with one another we say that the 2 bones form a joint.
  • Arthrology = study of joints
  • Kinesiology = study of movement within the human body
  • Rheumatology = study of joint diseases and related conditions
joint strength flexibility movement
Joint Strength, Flexibility, & Movement
  • Determined by:
    • Shape of the articulating bones
    • Flexibility of the ligaments that attach bone to bone
    • Tension of tendons and muscles of the articulating bones
    • Hormones
  • Dislocation: When articulating bones move from their normal positions.
joint structure
Joint Structure
  • Classification:
    • Type of connective tissue that holds the bones together.
    • The presence or absence of a synovial cavity (space between the articulating bones).
joint function
Joint Function
  • Classification:
    • Relates to the amount of movement allowed
  • Types:
    • Synarthrosis = Immoveable joint
      • Ex. pelvis , sutures, teeth
    • Amphiarthrosis= Slightly moveable joint
      • Ex. epiphysis, tibia-fibula, vertebrae and pelvic symphysis
    • Diarthrosis = A freely movable joint.
      • All synovial joints fall into this category
      • Come in many shapes
      • Allow for different types of movements
types of fibrous joints
Types of Fibrous Joints
  • Fibrous joints are held together by fibrous connective tissue – bones lack a synovial cavity = little to no movement.
  • Suture
  • Unite the bones of the skull
  • The irregular interlocking edges decrease chances of fracturing
  • Functionally classified as Synarthrosis = Immovable
types of fibrous joints1
Types of Fibrous Joints

2. Syndesmosis

  • Contains dense fibrous connective tissue
  • Functionally classified as amphiarthrosis = Slight movement
  • Ex. The distal articulation between the tibia and the fibula.
types of fibrous joints2
Types of Fibrous Joints

3. Gomphosis

  • Cone shaped peg that fits into a socket
  • The only found in the articulations of the roots of the teeth with the sockets of the mandible & maxillae.
  • Functionally classified as synarthrosis = Immovable
types of cartilaginous joints
Types of Cartilaginous Joints
  • Cartilagious joints are held together by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage
    • Bones lack a synovial cavity
  • Synchondrosis
  • A cartilage joint that connects with hyaline cartilage
  • Ex. Epiphyseal plate that connect the epiphysis and the diaphysis of a bone.
  • Functionally classified as synarthrosis = Immovable
types of cartilaginous joints1
Types of Cartilaginous Joints
  • Symphysis
  • A cartilage joint where ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but the bones themselves connect via fibrocartilage.
  • Ex. Pubic symphysis & between the bodies of vertebrae.
  • Functionally classified as amphiarthrosis = Slightly movable
types of synovial joints
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Synovial joints
    • Presence of a synovial cavity
    • Functionally classified as diarthrosis = Freely movable
    • Epiphysis of bones are covered by articular (hyaline) cartilage
      • Reduces friction
      • Absorb shock
    • Contain ligaments: bundled fibers that connect bone to bone and give joints stability
types of synovial joints1
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Planar AKA Plane or Gliding Joint
    • Flat or slightly curved bones
    • Allow for side to side & back and forth gliding motion
  • Hinge Joint
    • Concave surface meets the convex surface of another bone
    • Allow for opening & closing motion like the hinge of a door
types of synovial joints2
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Pivot Joint
    • A rounded surface articulates with a ring formed by another bone or ligament.
    • Allows for rotation around its vertial axis.
  • Condyloid Joint
    • Convex-oval shape of one bone fits into the concave-oval shape of another.
    • Allows for up & down and side to side movement.
types of synovial joints3
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Saddle Joint
    • Allows for side to side and back to forth movement.
  • Ball & Socket Joint
    • Ball like surface of one bone fits into the cup like depression of another.
    • Allows for free movement.