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JOINTS. Learning Objectives. To know the different joint types To understand how to classify joint types To be able to discuss the importance of the structure and function of a synovial joint. Joints. The human skeleton is jointed to allow movement.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • To know the different joint types
  • To understand how to classify joint types
  • To be able to discuss the importance of the structure and function of a synovial joint
slide3

Joints

  • The human skeleton is jointed to allow movement.
  • Muscular contraction causes the bones to move about the joints.

A joint iswhere two or more bones meet andmuscles act together to cause movement.

slide4

Types of Joints

There are 3 main types of joint found in the body.

  • Fibrous/ immovable joints
  • The bones at an immoveable joint cannotmove - they overlap or interlock, and are held together by a tough fibre, e.g. theskull.
  • 2. Cartilaginous/slightly moveable joints
  • The bones at a slightly moveable joint can only move
  • a little - they are held together by strong straps
  • called ligaments and are joined by protective pads
  • known as cartilage, e.g. theribs.
  • 3. Synovial joint/freely moveable
  • At a freely moveable joint the bones move freely.
  • They are also known as synovialjoints, and
  • are the largest group of joints found in the body,
  • e.g. thehips,shouldersandknees.
slide5

Freely Moveable Joints

  • Freely Moveable joints are also known as Synovial Joints.
  • They are freely moving and occur where 2 or more bones meet.
  • There are about 70 freely moveable joints in the human skeleton.
  • These interest us the most because they allow the greatest range of movement and are found in the appendicualr skeleton
slide6

Cartilage

  • Hyaline or Articular cartilage- found on the surface
  • of bone
  • 2. Yellow Elastic cartilage- elastic and found in the
  • external ear
  • 3. White Fibrocartilage- tough, dense tissue that
  • acts as a shock absorber. Found between the vertebrae
slide8

Articular/hyaline Cartilage – A material which covers the end of each bone, and which helps prevent friction between the joint.

  • Absorbs compression placed on the joint,
  • protects the joint.
  • 2. Joint Capsule – The outer layer is a tough fibrous layer called the fibrous capsule.
  • Increases stability
  • The inner layer is called the synovial membrane
  • Secretes synovial fluid, strengthens the joint
slide10

3. Synovial Membrane– Thin membrane which lines the inside of the joint capsule.

  • It produces synovial fluid
  • 4. Synovial Fluid – The fluid which surrounds the joint and is contained in the joint cavity.
  • Reduce friction between the cartilage
  • Nourish the cartilage
  • Get rid of any waste debris
slide11

4. Ligaments – A band of strong fibrous tissue, helps prevent dislocation.

  • Connect bone to bone
  • 5. Tendons– Strong connective tissue that attached muscle to bone.
  • Connect muscle to muscle
  • 6. Bursa- pad of fat provide cushioning between the fibrous capsule and a bone or muscle.
  • Cushion the joint and act as shock absorbers
the synovial joint of the knee
The Synovial Joint of the Knee

The knee is a hinge joint.

Femur

Articular(hyaline)Cartilage

Joint capsule

Cruciate Ligaments

Synovial Membrane

Patella

Synovial Fluid

Joint cavity

Tibia/Fibula

Tendons

slide13

The Synovial Joint of the Hip

The Hip is a ball and socket joint.

Cartilage

Pelvis

Synovial Fluid

SynovialMembrane

Ligaments

Tendons

Femur

slide14

TASK

  • Label the diagram of a synovial joint using a colour code system
  • YOU MAY BE ASKED TO LABEL A SYNOVIAL JOINT IN
  • EXAM OR EXPLAIN THE STRUCTURE AND FUCTION
slide17

Types of Synovial Joints

Synovial joints are classifed according to the shape of the

articulating surface.

KEY

Ball & Socket Joint

Hinge Joint

Pivot Joint

Gliding Joint

Saddle Joint

Condyloid Joint

slide18

KEY TERM

ARTICULATION-

The different bones that form to make the joint

EXAMPLE

JointJoint typeArticulating bonesMovement

Elbow Hinge joint Humerus, radius, ulna

Write down another example

slide19

1. Ball and Socket Joints

The ball has a head shaped of one bone which articulates

with a cuplike socket.

Allows the greatest range of movement

Examples

HIP

SHOULDER

slide20

2. Hinge Joints

They are cylindrical shaped of 1 bone articulates with

a depression of an adjacent bone

Movement is restricted to bending and straightening

EXAMPLES

ELBOW

KNEE

slide21

3. Pivot Joints

These are rounded, pointed or concave of one bone which articulates which a ring shaped bone.

Movement is restricted to 1 bone rotating around the longitudinal axis.

EXAMPLEVERTEBRAE OFTHE NECK

slide22

4. Gliding Joints

The articulating surfaces are flat.

It allows limited movement

EXAMPLES

HAND BETWEEN THE CARPELS

slide23

5. Saddle Joints

The articulating surfaces are shaped like a saddle

It allows very limited movement

EXAMPLE

THUMB JOINT

slide24

6. Condyloid Joints

The surfaces are flatter and oval forming a shallow joint

It allows the second greatest range of movement.

EXAMPLE

WRIST JOINT

slide25

Structure and function

Hyaline/Articular cartilage

Structure: Smooth, spongy cartilage that covers end of bone.

Function: prevent friction between bones

absorb compression placed on the joint

protect bone from getting crushed

Joint capsule:

Structure: Outer layer is a tough fibrous layer- fibrous membrane.

slide26

The inner layer- synovial membrane

Function:strengthen the joint

secrete synovial fluid

Synovial Fluid

Structure; slippery fluid, contained in the joint cavity

Function; reduce friction between cartilage

nourish the articular cartilage

get rid of waste debris in joint

Ligament

Structure; band of strong fibrous tissue

Function; connect bone to bone

slide27

Meniscus (cartilage)

Structure: white fibrocartilage

Function: improves the fit between bone ends

increases joint stability

reduces wear and tear at joint

Bursa

Structure:fluid filled sacs

Function: prevent friction where bones, ligaments and muscles may rub together

slide28

PLENARY

Identify the bones that articulate at the

shoulder joint? (2 marks)

Identify the bones that articulate at the elbow joint? (3 marks)

slide29

Ball and Socket Joints

Examples

HIP

SHOULDER

The ball has a head shaped of one bone which articulates

with a cuplike socket.

Allows the greatest range of movement

Hinge Joints

EXAMPLES

ELBOW

KNEE

They are cylindrical shaped of 1 bone articulates with

a depression of an adjacent bone

Movement is restricted to bending and straightening

slide30

Pivot Joints

VERTEBRAE OFTHE NECK

These are rounded, pointed or concave of one bone which articulates which a ring shaped bone.

Movement is restricted to 1 bone rotating around the longitudinal axis.

HAND BETWEEN THE CARPELS

Gliding Joints

The articulating surfaces are flat.

It allows limited movement

slide31

Saddle Joints

EXAMPLE

THUMB JOINT

The articulating surfaces are shaped like a saddle

It allows very limited movement

Condyloid Joints

The surfaces are flatter and oval forming a shallow joint

It allows the second greatest range of movement.

EXAMPLE

WRIST JOINT