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Joints . AS Level Anatomy and Physiology. Lesson Outcomes. By the end of today’s lesson you will understand: The 6 main types of synovial joints The structure of synovial joints The type of movement joints can perform. Synovial joints. Freely moveable

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Presentation Transcript
joints

Joints

AS Level

Anatomy and Physiology

lesson outcomes
Lesson Outcomes

By the end of today’s lesson you will understand:

  • The 6main types of synovial joints
  • The structure of synovial joints
  • The type of movementjoints can perform
synovial joints
Synovial joints
  • Freely moveable
  • Found in the appendicular skeleton

Structure

There are several important structures common to all synovial joints…

structure and function of synovial joints important
Structure and Function of Synovial Joints (Important!)
  • FOUR features
      • Articular/Hyaline Cartilage

Smooth cartilage at the end of bones at the joint

      • Two-Layered Joint Capsule

Outer Layer – Tough fibrous capsule

Inner Layer – Synovial Membrane

      • Synovial Fluid

Slippery fluid in joint capsule (like egg white!)

      • Ligament

A band of strong fibrous tissue

Structure

Structure

Structure

Structure

structure and function of synovial joints important5
Structure and Function of Synovial Joints (Important!)
  • FOUR Functions
      • Articular/Hyaline Cartilage

Prevent friction between articulating bones

      • Two-Layered Joint Capsule

Outer Layer – Strengthen joint

Inner Layer – To secrete synovial fluid

      • Synovial Fluid

Reduce friction between articular cartilages

Nourish articular cartilage

Rid the joint of waste

      • Ligament

To connect one bone to another

types of synovial joint
Types of Synovial Joint
  • There are six main types of synovial joint found in the body
  • Can you name them

and give examples?

the 6 types
The 6 Types
  • Hinge Knee, Elbow
  • Condyloid Wrist
  • Gliding Articulating surfaces of the vertebrae
  • Pivot Radio-ulna, atlas/axis
  • Ball and Socket Shoulder, Hip
  • Saddle Thumb
movements at joints
Movements at Joints
  • All movements start from the anatomical position (AP) – see picture of skeleton
  • Flexion– movement forward from AP (except knee joint)
  • Extension – movement backward from AP (except knee joint)
practice these movements for the following joints wrist elbow shoulder spine hip knee
Practice these movements for the following joints….Wrist, elbow, shoulder, spine, hip, knee

TASK

Info:The knee joint is the only exception where flexion moves backwards and extension moves forwards

slide10

Abduction – movement away from midline of body

Occurs at wrist, shoulder, hip

  • Adduction – movement towards midline of body

Occurs at wrist, shoulder, hip

  • Rotation and circumduction– what is the difference?

To recognise the difference:

Rotation: the long axis of the moving part would draw a dot if a pen was held at the end

Circumduction: the pen would draw a circle

specialist movements
Specialist Movements
  • Supination – radio-ulna joint – palms up
  • Pronation – radio-ulna joint – palms down
  • Dorsi-flexion – ankle joint – toes up
  • Plantar-flexion– ankle joint – toes down

Point to the floor

  • Practise these movements then complete worksheet 1.3 (labelling an upper/lower joint)
homework
Homework!

Complete the crossword

Hint

For 3 down the pelvis is also called the illium!