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LISTENING SKILLS. Prof.Meenakshi Gupta Dept. of Humanities & Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Powai Mumbai. Basic Communication Skills Profile. ________________________________________________ Communication Order Learned Extent Used Extent Taught

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listening skills

LISTENING SKILLS

Prof.Meenakshi Gupta

Dept. of Humanities & Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, PowaiMumbai

basic communication skills profile
Basic Communication Skills Profile

________________________________________________

Communication Order Learned Extent Used Extent Taught

____________________________________________

Listening First First Fourth

Speaking Second Second Third

Reading Third Third Second

Writing Fourth Fourth First

meaning
Meaning
  • Listening Is With The Mind
  • Hearing With The Senses
  • Listening Is Conscious.
  • An Active Process Of Eliciting Information
  • Ideas, Attitudes And Emotions
  • Interpersonal, Oral Exchange
fallacies about listening
Fallacies about Listening
  • Listening is not my problem!
  • Listening and hearing are the same
  • Good readers are good listeners
  • Smarter people are better listeners
  • Listening improves with age
  • Learning not to listen
  • Thinking about what we are going to say rather than listening to a speaker
  • Talking when we should be listening
  • Hearing what we expect to hear rather than what is actually said
  • Not paying attention

( preoccupation, prejudice, self-centeredness, stero-type)

  • Listening skills are difficult to learn
stages of the listening process
Stages of the Listening Process
  • Hearing
  • Focusing on the message
  • Comprehending and interpreting
  • Analyzing and Evaluating
  • Responding
  • Remembering
types of listening
Types of Listening
  • Informative Listening
  • Vocabulary
  • Concentration
  • Memory
  • Relationship Listening
  • Attending
  • Supporting
  • Empathizing
  • Appreciative Listening
  • Presentation
  • Perception
  • Previous experience
types of listening cont
Types of Listening (Cont.)
  • Critical Listening
  • Ethos
  • Logos
  • Pathos
  • Discriminative Listening
  • Hearing Ability
  • Awareness of Sound Structure
  • Integration of non-verbal cues
barriers to active listening
Barriers to Active Listening
  • Environmental barriers
  • Physiological barriers
  • Psychological barriers
  • Selective Listening
  • Negative Listening Attitudes
  • Personal Reactions
  • Poor Motivation
how to be an effective listener
How to Be an Effective Listener
  • What You Think about Listening ?
  • Understand the complexities of listening
  • Prepare to listen
  • Adjust to the situation
  • Focus on ideas or key points
  • Capitalize on the speed differential
  • Organize material for learning
how to be an effective listener cont
How to Be an Effective Listener (cont.)
  • What You Feel about Listening ?
  • Want to listen
  • Delay judgment
  • Admit your biases
  • Don’t tune out “dry” subjects
  • Accept responsibility for understanding
  • Encourage others to talk
how to be an effective listener cont11
How to Be an Effective Listener (cont.)
  • What You Do about Listening ?
  • Establish eye contact with the speaker
  • Take notes effectively
  • Be a physically involved listener
  • Avoid negative mannerisms
  • Exercise your listening muscles
  • Follow the Golden Rule
improving listening comprehension
Improving Listening Comprehension
  • Listening comprehension is the act of understanding an oral message
  • It involves speech decoding, comprehending, and oral discourse analysis
speech decoding
Speech Decoding
  • Sound Perception and Recognition

(Recognising sounds and sound patterns accurately, recognising the way sounds combine to form syllables and utterances)

speech decoding cont
Speech Decoding (Cont..)
  • Word recognition

( Recognising words accurately, understanding the definitions of the words being use, recognising the way words are used un context, identifying attention signals)

speech decoding cont15
Speech Decoding (Cont..)
  • Accent recognition

( recognise stress, identify pauses, hesitations )

comprehending
Comprehending

Comprehending a verbal message involves the ability to:

  • Identify the central theme, main ideas and supporting details;
  • Concentrate and understand long speeches
  • Identify the level of formality
  • Deduce incomplete information
  • Deduce unfamiliar vocabulary
oral discourse analysis
Oral Discourse Analysis
  • Is the process of identifying relationships among different units within the speech or oral message:
  • Critical skills
  • Attitude analysis
  • Inferential skills
listening to structured talks
Listening to structured talks
  • Pre-listening analysis-determining the purpose, knowing your speaker
  • Predicting about the content of a verbal message
  • Using background knowledge
  • Intensive listening
intensive listening
Intensive Listening
  • Listening to the introduction?
  • What is the position, knowledge, background, experience of the speaker?
  • What is his credibility?
  • What is the overall purpose of the talk?
  • What is the central idea or theme?
  • What is the overall structure?
  • What does the speaker intend to do?
  • What are the main points of the talk?
intensive listening cont
Intensive listening (Cont…)

2. Listening to the Body

  • Contains the main message-pay attention
  • Concentrate on verbal signposts
  • Recognise main supporting details of the oral message
  • Concentrate on visual aids
intensive listening cont21
Intensive Listening ( Cont..)

3. Listening to the conclusion

  • Understand the main themes of the verbal message
  • Recognise the speaker`s focus of the talk
  • Concentrate on what the speaker wants the listener`s to do, or remember
effective note making
Effective Note Making
  • Note making is essential in college:
  • For lectures, which are a highly condensed methods of passing on information
  • For reading, because what you don't write down, you don't remember
effective note making cont
Effective Note Making (Cont.)
  • Note making is a skill:
  • Most people feel deficient
  • It can be learned
  • This takes understanding of what you're doing
  • It takes practice, which involves effort
effective note making cont26
Effective Note Making (Cont.)
  • Note making is difficult because:
  • Spoken language is more diffuse than written
  • Speaker's organization is not immediately apparent
  • Immediate feedback seldom occurs
  • Spoken language is quickly gone
  • This makes analysis difficult
five purposes for note making
Five purposes for note making:
  • Provides a written record for review
  • Provides a definite, limited learning task
  • Forces you to pay attention
  • Requires organization, and active effort on the part of the listener
  • Listener must condense and rephrase, which aids understanding
sequence
Sequence
  • Listen and focus on meaning
  • Evaluate what is being said
  • Is it relevant to your purpose? What are the high points?
  • Record the information
  • Make use of it
physical factors
Physical factors
  • Seating
  • Near the front and center - easier to see and hear
  • Avoid distractions - doorways, windows, glare; friends, foes
  • Materials
  • Loose leaf notebook: lies flat - organization and additions are

easier

  • Two pens, wide-lined, easy-eye paper; use dividers
  • Course, date, and topic clearly labeled
before taking notes preview
Before taking notes - PREVIEW
  • Prepare yourself mentally - What do you need to get out of this?
  • Review notes from last time and homework. Nail your attention down tight.
  • Review the outline from your reading assignment
  • Think through what has happened in the class to date
  • Generate enthusiasm and interest
  • Increased knowledge results in increased interest
  • A clear sense of purpose on your part will make the course content more relevant
  • Acting as if you are interested can help
  • Don't let the personality or mannerisms of a speaker put you off
  • Be ready to understand and remember
  • Anticipate the next step and compare what you've guessed with what happens
get involved
Get Involved!
  • Tune-in, look, listen for clues:
  • Tone or gesture of Professor
  • Repetition; cue words: "remember!"
  • Notice what conflicts with your current opinions
  • They are harder to understand and remember
  • Keep thinking...
  • Look for emerging patterns
  • Write questions in margins to be answered later
while taking notes
While taking notes
  • Don't try for a verbatim transcript
  • Get all of the main ideas
  • Record some details. illustrations, implications, etc.
  • Leave plenty of wide space for later additions - underscore or star major points
  • Note speaker's organization of material
  • Organization aids memory
  • Organization indicates gaps when they occur - you fill in later
  • Be accurate
  • Listen carefully to what is being said
  • Pay attention to qualifying words like: sometimes, usually, rarely, etc.
  • Notice signals that a change of direction is coming: but, however, on the other hand
while taking notes cont
While taking notes (Cont.)
  • Be an aggressive, not a passive, listener
  • Jot questions in your notes
  • Do you believe what you're hearing? What do you believe?
  • Seek out meanings. Look for implications beyond what is being said.
  • Relate the material to your other classes and your life outside of school.
  • Develop a shorthand of your own
  • Jot down words or phrases; use contractions and abbreviations
  • Leave out small service words, use symbols: +, =,&, ~)
  • Try to get the hang of listening and writing at the same time. It can be done
  • You may practice listening to the news on TV and taking notes
post view don t move go over notes at once
POST VIEW: Don't move - go over notes at once!
  • Review and reword them as soon after class as possible
  • Build review time into your schedule
  • Don't just recopy or type without thought
  • "Reminiscing" may provide forgotten material later
  • Rewrite incomplete or skimpy parts in greater detail
  • Fill in gaps as you remember points heard but not recorded
  • Arrange with another student to compare notes
  • Find answers to any questions remaining unanswered
  • Write a brief summary of the class session
  • Formulate several generalized test questions based on the material
post view don t move go over notes at once cont
POST VIEW: Don't move - go over notes at once! (Cont.)
  • Use your notes as a learning tool
  • Review at spaced intervals it is more effective than the same effort spent cramming
  • We forget 50% of what we hear immediately, two days later, another 25% is gone.
  • But relearning is rapid if regular review is used.
  • Compare the information in your notes with your own experience - don't swallow everything uncritically
  • Don't reject what seems strange or incorrect. Check it out. Be willing to hold some seeming inconsistencies in your mind over a period of time.
  • Build a good "thought map" of the ideas. Explain it to anyone who'll listen.
  • Memorize that which must be memorized.
the ten commandments keith davis
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS – KEITH DAVIS
  • Stop Talking.
  • Put The Talker At Ease.
  • Show Him That You Want To Listen.
  • Remove Distractions.
  • Empathize With Him.
  • Be Patient.
  • Hold Your Temper.
  • Go Easy On Arguments And Criticism.
  • Ask Questions.
  • Stop Talking!