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Mass Media
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Mass Media

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Mass Media Media…for the masses?

  2. Mass Media Today • Examples? (This is pretty easy) • http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/ • Collection of presidential campaign ads – we’ll look at a few. • 30-60 seconds to get a memorable/meaningful message across • “Media Events” – staged events designed to be covered by media – virtually no real importance if media weren’t present

  3. Media History • Newspapers come about in mid-19th century • Radio/TV – First half of 20th century • FDR • Press conferences twice a week • “Fireside Chats” – frequent radio addresses to Depression-ridden nation • Reporters largely deferential to government

  4. Media History 2: Electric Boogaloo • Vietnam and Watergate – developing cynicism • Investigative Journalism – digging up scoops • “Gotcha” stories • Negative references vs. favorable • Kennedy/Nixon = 3 to 1 • Clinton/Bush = 2 to 3

  5. Print • First daily – Philadelphia 1783 • First Amendment protection means papers can expose government’s “dirty linen” • Early 1900s – “Yellow Journalism” – Focus on sensationalism • New York Times – nation’s newspaper of record – comparatively high standards • Washington Post – perhaps best coverage from within DC • Associated Press – widest net of news gathering people (reporters, photographers, editors, etc.)

  6. Decline of Print or: Television and Internet killed the Print Media Star • Newspaper readers more likely to vote • 100,000 words/day published in a newspaper versus around 3,600 words/nightly news broadcast • Circulation has been dropping steadily for the past 50 years • Magazines also • “newsweeklies” Time, Newsweek, US News and World Report lag behind Reader’s Digest, TV Guide, and Natty Geo • Newsweek lags behind Playboy and People • More serious news/opinion magazines like New Republic, National Review, and Atlantic Monthly are even lower

  7. Broadcast • Mid-’30s – radio ownership nearly universal • ‘50s-early ‘60s – TV • TV helped make Nixon’s career – “Checkers Speech” in 1952 • TV nearly killed Nixon’s career – 1960 debate with Kennedy • Nixon had just spent a week in the hospital, looked like garbage; Kennedy had Tiger-Beat-Heart-Throb-like good looks • People who listened on radio thought Nixon won debate; those watching on TV thought Kennedy won

  8. Government Regulation • FCC – Federal Communications Commission • Prevent monopolies of airwaves – no single entity can control more than 35% of broadcast market • Make sure stations are “serving the public interest” in order to keep their licenses • Enforce fair-treatment rules for political candidates and officeholders • Equal-time – if they sell time to one candidate, must be willing to sell to other candidates • Right-of-Reply – if a person is attacked on non-news program, that person has the right to reply on the same station • “Fairness Doctrine” – required broadcasters to give equal time to opposing views if they showed a program slanted to one side of a controversial issue • Fairness dropped in 1986 – proliferation of tv/cabnle stations make it unnecessary

  9. Modern Times – “Narrowcasting” • “Broadcasting” – ABC, NBC, CBS  choose term as they are appealing to “broad” audience • Modern cable stations/internet sites can appeal to a narrow focus – “narrowcasting” • CSPAN, CSPAN 2 – coverage of House and Senate • MSNBC – Seen by some as a “liberal-slanted” news network • Fox News – Seen by some as a “conservative-slanted” network

  10. Danger of Privately-controlled, narrow media • Jon Stewart on CNN’s “Crossfire” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFQFB5YpDZE

  11. List of “living room candidate” videos • 1952 – Eisenhower – Never Had it So Good • 1952 – Stevenson – Let’s Not Forget the Farmer • 1964 – Johnson – Peace Little Girl • 1972 – Nixon – McGovern Defense • 1984 – Reagan – Bear; Prouder, Stronger, Better • 1984 – Mondale – Rollercoaster • 1988 – Bush – Tank, Revolving Door • 1992 – Clinton – Rebuild America • 1996 – Clinton – Surgeon • 2000 – Bush – Really MD • 2004 – Bush – Windsurfing • 2008 – McCain – Celeb; Original Mavericks; Dangerous; Compare • 2008 – Obama – Fundamentals; Better Off; What Kind; Rearview Mirror