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Mass Media. 8 aspects to consider in our course this semester. Their importance Primary Mass Media Media Models Economics. Demassification Conglomeration Globalization Media Melding. The eight aspects are. Their importance.

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Mass Media


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    1. Mass Media 8 aspects to consider in ourcourse this semester

    2. Their importance Primary Mass Media Media Models Economics Demassification Conglomeration Globalization Media Melding The eight aspects are...

    3. Their importance • “Studying the media gives people the tools to know whether the media are living up to their potential as facilitators of democracy.”

    4. 1. Pervasiveness 2. Citizenship 3. Information source 4. Entertainment source 5. Persuasion 6. Binding influence Importance of Mass Media

    5. Primary Media • Print • Newspapers • Books • Magazines

    6. Radio • Television • Computers • WWW combines text, audio, still and moving visuals.

    7. Chemical Media • Film • “silver halide” most efficient as storage medium and can be projected effectively.

    8. Mass Communication Models • Marshall Mc Luhan--Canada, 1950s • “Hot” media require thinking, involvement • Newspapers, books, magazines • “Cool” media require little effort • TV, radio

    9. Models continued • Entertainment -information model • A dichotomy • All media can entertain, inform and persuade

    10. Elitist Populist Model • Elitist-Populist Model

    11. Elitist media have obli-gation to improve, better raise public consciousness educate, uplift, refine culture. Responsibility: pro- vide cultural & intellectual leadership Populist marketplace decides give people what they want Elitist-Populist Model

    12. Push media Active Thrust messages at you; beepers, ad banners Receivers are on Pull Media Passive You steer them TV, Radio Push-Pull Model

    13. Economics of Mass Media • Two ways to sell media products: • 1. Advertising support • advertisers pay for access to customers • movie makers use “product placement to pick up advertising directly • direct payment

    14. 2. Circulation revenue • Direct audience payment--HBO, subs • Audience donations • Private support • Government subsidies • Auxiliary enterprises--A newspaper may sell newsprint from its paper factories in Canada.

    15. “Economic Imperative” • Means that you must make money • The principle at work when TV shows are cancelled due to low ratings. • Promotions

    16. Upside and downside • Free press • Independent press • Hard to get certain themes on air • Media won’t investigate their co’s • Who owns the “free” press?

    17. US Media Landscape • 12, 227 radio stations • Average is 5 per household • 1,564 TV stations • $40.8 billion in Adv revenues • 70% to TV; 30% to radio • 84% have VCR’s • $123.4 billion total stock market value of Fox, (News Corp) Walt Disney and CBS

    18. Factoids about Cable • 11,800 cable systems. • Time Warner cable the largest. • Telecom Inc is largest MSO. • 67.4% US HH subscribe to cable. • 50% of cable wired HH have >30 chs. • Cable costs average $27.43 a month • HBO first satellite channel--1975 • Industry revenues about $29 billion.

    19. Some thoughts about kids and TV • TV is on 7 hours 9 minutes a day. • Children 2-17 watch TV 3 hours a day • 1,392 crime stories on ABC/CBS/NBC eve. news in 1998. • From 1996-1998 in Prime Time • 5% increase in violence • 30% increase in foul language • 42%increase in sexual content

    20. The Internet • 35% of US population use Internet • 57 % Internet users are men • 71% purchasing online by men. • $1.3 billion spent by teens and kids to buy goods online in 2002 (projection) • $128.4 billion total stock market value of American Online, Inc., May 1999

    21. Media Demassification • No longer seek mass audiences • Radio began to demassify in 50s • Now target segments of market share • Use demographics, psychographics

    22. Effects of Demassification • Advertisers bypass mass media to reach audiences. • Alternative media--narrowly focused adv • Direct mail • Point of purchase TV commercials • Grocery stores • Place-based media • Doctor’s offices • Telemarketing

    23. Consequences • Tendency • Revenue base will change. • Mass media will lose advertising support. • Did you see Blair Witch.com?

    24. Media Conglomeration • Big advantage--stability through rough periods • Media ownership changing • Business mgmt. “experts” run media enterprise; quality of media suffers • Mergers, acquisitions, buyouts, corporate ownership

    25. Top Six US Media Companies • Time Warner • News Corps • Telecommunication, Inc. • GE-NBC • Disney ABC • Microsoft

    26. Media Monopoly or Not? • Monopolies • Justice Dept Needs evidence of “collusion” to fix prices • Microsoft investigation

    27. Dubious Effects of Conglomeration • Potential for self serving inherent • Agenda is profits! Not ideology. • Negative impact on diversity: sameness • Quality suffers: fewer people do more work. People are laid off. • Newsgathering suffers

    28. Positive Effects of Conglomeration • US book industry financially stronger • Builder-entrepreneurs committed to media and its traditions

    29. Media Globalization • “Globalization”--international conglomerate acquisition for media holdings • 1. Transnational ownership • 2. “anonymous superpowers” which threaten US cultural autonomy • 3. Can adopt local strategy and respect national character and cultural tradition.

    30. Media Melding--8 primary media in transition • Digitization--process that compresses, stores and transmits data:--text, sound, video… • Intracorporate Synergy--TV networks that rely on one another’s productions; joint ventures between Hollywood film studios and TV networks. Partners, not competitors.

    31. Final Thoughts on Chapter One • Correlation between media use, education and prosperity key to development

    32. The First Amendment • “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”