TUDOR CRIME INDUSTRIAL CRIME MODERN CRIME 5 minutes WRITE DOWN WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT THE CRIMES OF EACH PERIOD AND THEIR CAUSES! KEY CAUSES OF CRIME KEY CAUSES OF CRIME KEY CAUSES OF CRIME
Crime in the 16th,17th and 18th centuries L.O. To develop understanding of changing nature and causes of crime in England and Wales 1500-present day. By the end of this lesson... ALL OF US will be able to give four facts about each crime and one reason for each. (E-D1) EVEN BETTER IF you can describe in detail and explain how reasons led to these crimes becoming common.(C-B3) EXCELLENT IF you can explain why the specific crimes became common in the 16th,17th, and 18thcenturies in depth. (B2)
DEVELOPMENTS IN CRIME TUDOR Main causes of Tudor crime: RELIGION, POVERTY Vagrancy (able bodied poor; deserving poor; vagrants; rural depopulation) Heresy (crime of religion; seen as crime against crown; many changes in religion) Treason (act against the crown; Gun Powder Plot) HOW BAD WAS IT? Main crimes that concerned the Tudors were ones which could lead to open rebellion. If there is enough poverty people would rebel; if there were enough heretics they may rebel; treason is the ultimate act of rebellion.
HOW HAVE RELIGIOUS CHANGES LED TO CRIME IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY (4 MARKS) Using the resources available create a mind map for each question. Including: Four key details, including specific examples of each crime. Causes of each type of crime. DESCRIBE THE CRIME OF TREASON. (4 MARKS) DESCRIBE THE CRIME OF VAGRANCY (4 MARKS) 1 MARK FOR SIMPLE STATEMENT. 2-3 MARKS FOR BRIEF DESCRIPTION 4 MARKS FOR GOOD DESCRIPTION OF SEVERAL ASPECTS OF THEIR ROLE. 20 minutes
DEVELOPMENTS IN CRIME LATE SEVENTEENTH/ EIGHTEENTH CENTURY Main causes of crime: Poverty; war; Smuggling (what was it; what were the main causes of it) Highway robbery (what was it; why was there an increase in it?) HOW BAD WAS IT? Big increase in crime during this period, due to new taxes, unemployment and attitudes toward crime
Two reasons why smuggling became common in the eighteenth century What was smuggled? Smuggling (C18th ) Why were smugglers rarely caught? How was it smuggled?
Govermentincreased taxes on imported goods. Easy to do. Most ordinary people and some magistrates helped the smugglers. Very few excise officers to patrol coastline. Tea, coffee, sugar, cotton, silk, spices and tobacco. Smuggling (C18th ) Smugglers mainly operated at night and in remote locations. It was hard for the Excise Men to keep a track of them. Excise men being responsible for checking up on smuggling. Good smuggled in at night to remote locations. • Many ordinary people would help smugglers out by leaving barns or houses open for them to hide the goods. • On the off chance the smugglers were caught... they could simply bribe their way out of trouble since the excise men weren’t paid much!
Three reasons why this crime became common in the seventeenth century. Describe a highway robber. Highway robbery (C18th ) Three reasons why this crime stopped. How did they commit this crime?
Gentlemen such as Dick Turpin who rode around the highways of England to rob from the rich and give to themselves. • Guns became easier and cheaper to get • Horses became cheaper to buy • There were lots of open land around towns in which highwaymen could operate and hide • The amount of coaches travelling around England increased massively. Highway robbery (C18th ) ‘Stand and Deliver – your money or your life’ on remote roads at night. Some cut their victims’ tongues out so they could not describe them. Towns started organising their own patrols, high rewards were offered for highwaymens capture and people got wise and stopped carrying all their cash with them (and so it became unprofitable to rob them) did the number of highwaymen start to die down.
More People in One Place - Simply put, more people moved to towns to find jobs. This lead to more crime because the more people there are the more crime there will be! Cramped Conditions - More people in towns lead to narrow terraced housing being built. This made crime easier since houses were closer together - so robbing them and hiding is much easier. These changes led to crimes such as: Garrotting, Pick Pocketting, public drunkeness, machine breaking/ How did the growth of towns lead to more crime in the nineteenth century? Dark Streets - The size of the new towns resulted in a lot of streets being unlit and therefore there was an increase in robberies and murders as the criminal could simply disappear into the night Jobs - Competition for jobs in towns could also lead to crime. In order to create job opportunities it wasn’t uncommon for unemployed people to arrange for those with a job to have an ‘accident!’
Luddites - These were the group who were protesting about change. The developments in the Industrial Revolution had meant that factories could make more of things and a quicker rate than before. This meant that some people lost jobs and business that they used to have before, and others had their wages reduced. They went into factories in places like Nottingham, broke machines and blamed it all on ‘NeddLudd’. • Swing Riots - These guys were protesting about change and a little bit about philosophy. They took place in the 1830s in the South of England, which was still mainly farming areas. But even here new machinery had made farming easier and so people would need fewer workers, and those workers got worse wages. Hence Protest and smash machines - same as the Luddites. • There were many reasons why people protested in the nineteenth century: • Politics - During this period people wanted the opportunity to vote. Since only 5% of the country could vote this meant there were a lot of people who wanted the vote and couldn’t. Hence. Protests. • Philosophy - Again. During this time people started to have some interesting ideas about everyone being equal and should actually be treated like that. This also led to Protests. • Poverty – Many lost jobs or had to manage with dropping wages as food prices rose. Examples of crimes of protest in the nineteenth century • Rebecca Riots - These took place between 1839 and 1843 and were again about change and equality. People in South Wales were being charged tolls to use roads to move their goods around and these tolls were beyond what they could afford. Since up until very recently they had not had to pay for the roads and many did not think they should have to pay to move around the land. Which they had been doing for free until someone put a fence on the road and charged them money... as to why it was called the Rebecca Riots? Well. The Rioters (men) dressed up as women (Rebecca). These riots then escalated into wider riots about how the Welsh were treated and led to Workhouses being destroyed and barns and Hayricks being burned.
Modern crime Key causes of crime: Poverty Greed Modern pressures New technology
Hacking - Easy enough to explain and understanding - breaking into someone else’s computer to take information that doesn’t belong to you, or to mess up what they have. • Computer Fraud - We get sent all kinds of spam e-mails telling us that we’ve won some lottery abroad or that or internet bank wants us to renter or login details... and these are all attempts to con us out of our money and hope that we don’t understand the technology and go along with it. • Viruses - Deliberate attempts to cause damage to others computers and programs • Identity Theft - By using a variety of the other crimes we can create another person’s identity online and use it to buy things or do things and not worry about the consequences • Cash - Using Identity theft, fraud, hacking and viruses also allow criminals to steal from bank accounts online. The 2002/03 British Crime Survey showed that 18% of households with internet access said their home computer had been affected by a virus. This had increased to 27% in 2003/04. One-third said the virus had damaged their computer. Computer crime Causes of computer crime: NEW TECHNOLOGY GREED REMOTE ACCESS MAKES IT A SAFER CRIME TO COMMIT
Young adults (those aged 16 to 24) were more likely to have used drugs in the last year than older adults. Around 1 in 12 (8.2%) adults had taken an illicit drug in the last year. (2.7 million people) Describe drug related crime. There are estimates of around 306,000 heroin and / or crack users in England Drug use can often link into a variety of different crimes such as theft, violence and dangerous driving. Illigal drugs are classified into three broad catagories A-C based on the risk they pose. Cannabis is the most commonly used drug, with 6.4% of adults aged 16 to 59 using it in the last year.
Poverty, unemployment and social exclusion are often underlying factors rather than the drug use itself The availability of illegal drugs makes this crime more common. Causes of drug crime Drug use is not just common in one class or group in society. Peer pressure can lead many to become involved in drug abuse. The pressures of modern life can lead some people to turn to drugs as an escape. Funding drug addiction often leads to crimes such as theft. This has led some people to suggest that up to half of all theft is drug-related and that the market value of goods stolen involved could be between £2-2.5 billion each year. The availability of illegal drugs makes this crime more common.
Up to 60,000 young people, mostly male, may be stabbed and injured each year, the equivalent of more than 160 victims a day. In 1997 the Firearms Amendment completely banned handguns for private ownership. Knife common more common among young males in inner city areas such as London and Nottingham. Knife common more common among young males in inner city areas such as London and Nottingham. Causes tend to be linked to: Gang Culture. Poverty. Causes tend to be linked to: Gang Culture. Poverty.
IRA AL QAEDA Manchester Arndale shopping centre bombings, 1996. Generally called to warn of explosion to minimise fatalities. Done to ‘scare’ England into giving up ownership of Northern Ireland so that North and Republic can unite into one complete Ireland. 7/7 2005 bombings in London. Blew up crowded buses and tubes during rush hour for maximum impact. 52 civilians killed. Done to ‘scare’ England/USA into having less involvement in ‘Muslim’ countries in the Middle East. Terrorism has become one of the most famous crimes of the 20th/21st Century. Events like the London Bombings show the idea of terrorism - targeting innocent civilians in order to try and send a message to governments.