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Goals of Archaeology

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  1. Goals of Archaeology

  2. Archaeology: Important Terms • Focuses on ___________ _____________________ ____________________ • Sites: • Precise __________

  3. Archaeology: Important Terms

  4. Archaeology: Important Terms • Features: • ____________________________ • Artifacts: • ___________________________ • Ethnoarchaeology • _______________________________ • Example: modern-day foragers

  5. Archaeology & Cultural Anthropology • ________________________ • Learn about individual cultures • Compare & contrast • Form a broad understanding of ______________ • Archaeology • 1. • 2.

  6. Goals of Archaeology • Overall goal: • __________________________ • Achieved through: • 1. • 2. • 3.

  7. Discovery & Description • ______________ • Includes • _________ located & investigated • _______ described & classified • ______ chronologies formulated • _____________ • ________________

  8. Explanation • Seek to ___________ explanations based _________________________ results • ‘Understanding why things are the way they are.’

  9. Understanding Human Behavior Contribute to ________________ • _________________________ • Subsistence strategies • How is this achieved? • ________________ • Cultural & social change • Use of technology

  10. Branches of Archaeology • Based on time period and/or geographical area • Divisions: • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4.

  11. Archaeological Record

  12. Learning Objectives • Understand how archaeologists gather information about past cultures. • Understand how the archaeological process works, and the ways archaeologists use science to explore how people lived in the past. • Describe how studies of material culture can serve as a form of data to improve knowledge about human behavioral variability in past and contemporary societies

  13. Doing Archaeology • Locating Sites • Excavation • Dating Techniques • Artifact Analysis • Site & Regional Synthesis

  14. Survey • ________________________ • Possible location of site • Ground, aerial, GPR, GIS

  15. Excavation • _______________________ • Removal of soil deposits and other materials

  16. Interpreting the Past • _________________________ • Ecological niches • Can the environment influence population size? • How so? • _______________________ • Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, & States

  17. Interpreting the Past Subsistence Strategies Food Collectors Food Producers Horticulturists & Agriculturists Pastoralists Foragers ______ _____ _____

  18. Interpreting the Past • Human societies • Remember Morgan, Radcliffe-Brown, Malinowski, Boas…. • After WWII • Archaeological & ethnographic information • Considered: 1. 2.

  19. Interpreting the Past: Social Organization • Bands: _______________ _____

  20. Interpreting the Past: Social Organization • Tribes: ____ _______

  21. Interpreting the Past: Social Organization • Chiefdoms: • States: stratified society, defined territory, governmental institutions • Empires:

  22. Interpreting the Past: What are Material Remains?

  23. Interpreting the Past: What are Material Remains? • Artifact • Any movable object that has been __________________________________ • Stone, bone, metal tools; beads & other ornaments, pottery, artwork, religious & sacred items

  24. Interpreting the Past: What are Material Remains? • Ecofact • Artifacts that ____________________ • _______________________

  25. Interpreting the Past: What are Material Remains? • Midden • _______________________________ • Consists of sediment • Food remains & discarded artifacts

  26. Interpreting the Past: What are Material Remains? • Feature • ______________________ • Hearths, pits, or house floors • Reveal information ______________

  27. Interpreting the Past: Importance of Context • An artifact’s context • __________________where it was found • How it relates to other artifacts around it • Why is context important? • 1. • 2.