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Archaeology. 4th Edition. Chapter 1. Meet Some Real Archaeologists. Outline. Introduction The Western World Discovers Its Past Founders of Americanist Archaeology Revolution in Archaeology: An Advancing Science Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century Conclusion: Archaeology's Future.

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4th Edition

chapter 1

Chapter 1

Meet Some Real Archaeologists

  • Introduction
  • The Western World Discovers Its Past
  • Founders of Americanist Archaeology
  • Revolution in Archaeology: An Advancing Science
  • Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century
  • Conclusion: Archaeology's Future
first archaeologist
First Archaeologist
  • Most historians list Nabonidus, the last king of the neo-Babylonian Empire as the “first archaeologist”.
  • Nabonidus rebuilt temples of ancient Babylon and searched the foundations for inscriptions of earlier kings.
  • He looked for answers to questions about the past in physical residues of antiquity.
the western world discovers its past
The Western World Discovers Its Past
  • Fifteenth-century Italian scholar Ciriaco de’ Pizzicolli established the modern discipline of archaeology.
  • He translated the Latin inscription on the triumphal arch of Trajan in Ancona, Italy.
  • He devoted his life to studying ancient monuments, copying inscriptions, and promoting the study of the past.
archaeology s alphabet soup
Archaeology’s Alphabet Soup
  • BC - “before Christ”
    • Example: 3200 BC; letters follow the date.
  • AD - anno Domini, “in the year of the Lord”
    • A year after the birth of Christ. Letters are before the date - AD 1066.
    • The earliest AD date is AD 1. There is no AD 0 (use 0 BC to denote that date), double numbering is not allowed.
archaeology s alphabet soup7
Archaeology’s Alphabet Soup
  • BP - “before present”
    • Many archaeologists are more comfortable using this age estimate with AD 1950 selected as the zero point.
  • A date in lower case, such as 3200 b.c. , denotes a date derived by radiocarbon methods and reflects radiocarbon years rather than calendar years.
boucher de perthes
Boucher de Perthes
  • In 1836, Perthes found ancient tools and bones of extinct mammals in the gravels of the Somme River.
  • He believed these proved the existence of ancient man.
  • Current religious thought was that human beings had only been on earth for 6000 years, so many didn’t believe him.
  • Some suggested the tools were produced by lightning, elves, or fairies.
more discoveries
More Discoveries
  • More finds were made in the gravel pits at St. Acheul and in southern England.
  • Respected British paleontologist Hugh Falconer and other scholars declared their support for Perthes’ findings in 1859.
  • This began the recognition that life was more ancient than Biblical scholars argued and human culture had evolved over time.
british archaeology
British Archaeology
  • These discoveries led to two divergent courses for British archaeology:
    • The problems of remote geological time and the demonstration of long-term human evolution.
    • The archaeology of ancient Greece and Rome, a field now known as classical archaeology.
archaeology and native americans
Archaeology and Native Americans
  • American scholars saw living Native Americans as relevant to interpretation of archaeological remains.
  • Many Europeans saw Native Americans as “living fossils,” relics of times long past.
  • New World archaeology became connected to the study of living Native American people.
elements peculiar to new world archaeology
Elements Peculiar to New World Archaeology
  • Racist, anti–American Indian theories that dominated early 19th century American scholars.
  • The form of antiquity legislation in North America.
  • The fact that many Native Americans still do not trust conventional Western scholarship to interpret their past.
branches of archaeology
Branches of Archaeology
  • Classical archaeology - Studies civilizations of the Mediterranean, such as Greece and Rome, and the Near East.
  • Ethnology - Deals with the comparative study of cultures.
  • Americanist archaeology - Evolved in association with anthropology in the Americas; it is practiced throughout the world.
c b moore genteel antiquarian
C. B.Moore: Genteel Antiquarian
  • At age 40, Moore was introduced to American archaeology and transformed himself from gentleman socialite to gentleman archaeologist.
  • Moore was an antiquarian, more interested in objects of the past than in reconstructing the lives of the people who produced them or in explaining the past.
  • Any movable object that has been used, modified, or manufactured by humans.
  • Artifacts include stone, bone, and metal tools; beads and other ornaments; pottery; artwork; religious and sacred items.
  • Refuse deposit resulting from human activities, generally consisting of sediment.
  • Food remains such as charred seeds, animal bone, and shell; and discarded artifacts.
nels nelson america s first working archaeologist
Nels Nelson: America’s First “Working” Archaeologist
  • Nelson learned largely by experience.
  • His first responsibility was to record what he saw, then to conduct a preliminary excavation where warranted, and finally to offer tentative inferences to be tested by subsequent investigators.
  • Nelson typified the early 20th century archaeologists, who strongly believed that archaeology should be brought to the public.
a v ted kidder founder of anthropological archaeology
A. V. “Ted” Kidder: Founderof Anthropological Archaeology
  • Helped shift Americanist archaeology toward more anthropological purposes.
  • Maintained archaeology should be viewed as “that branch of anthropology which deals with prehistoric peoples,” a doctrine that has become firmly embedded and expanded in today’s Americanist archaeology.
james a ford a master of time
James A. Ford: A Master of Time
  • Refined techniques to place the stages of pottery development in sequential order, a process known as seriation.
  • By assuming that cultural styles change gradually, archaeologists can chart a style through time and across space.
  • Ford’s seriation technique established the baseline prehistoric chronology still used in the American Southeast.
walter w taylor moses in the wilderness
Walter W. Taylor: Moses in the Wilderness
  • Combined lines of evidence to create a picture of what the past was like and to discuss the functions of artifacts, features, and sites.
  • Urged archaeologists to forsake temples for garbage dumps.
  • Proposed that archaeologists quantify their data and test hypotheses that would refine their impressions.
culture history
Culture History
  • The kind of archaeology practiced in the early to mid-twentieth century.
  • It “explains” differences or changes over time in artifact frequencies by positing the diffusion of ideas between neighboring cultures or the migration of a people who had different mental templates for artifact styles.
trait list
Trait List
  • A simple listing of a culture’s material and behavioral characteristics, for example, house and pottery styles, foods, degree of nomadism, particular rituals, or ornaments.
  • Trait lists were used primarily to trace the movement of cultures across a landscape and through time.
conjunctive approach
Conjunctive Approach
  • As defined by Walter W. Taylor, using functional interpretations of artifacts and their contexts to reconstruct daily life of the past.
lewis r binford visionary with a message
Lewis R. Binford:Visionary with a Message
  • Binford argued that archaeologists should acquire data that make samples more representative of the populations from which they were drawn.
  • He urged archaeologists to look beyond the individual site to the region so entire cultural systems could be reconstructed.
new archaeology
New Archaeology
  • An approach to archaeology that arose in the 1960s emphasizing the understanding of underlying cultural processes and the use of the scientific method.
  • Today’s version of the “new archaeology” is sometimes called processual archaeology.
kathleen a deagan archaeology comes of age
Kathleen A. Deagan:Archaeology Comes of Age
  • A curator at the Florida Museum of Natural History, she specializes in Spanish colonial studies.
  • She is concerned with the people and culture behind the artifact and with explaining the social and cultural behaviors that she reconstructs from archaeology.
history of archaeology a summary
History of Archaeology: A Summary
  • In North America, archaeology began as the pastime of the curious and the wealthy, who lacked formal training.
  • Archaeology as a formal discipline dates to the mid nineteenth century and was characterized by a scientific approach and rigorous methods of excavation and data collection.
history of archaeology a summary28
History of Archaeology: A Summary
  • By the 1950s, archaeology began to move beyond description and chronology to focus on the reconstruction of past lifeways.
  • This continued in the 1960s, with the addition of efforts to employ a scientific approach aimed at discovering universal laws and to develop theories to explain the human history uncovered by archaeology.
archaeology today
Archaeology Today
  • Today, archaeology covers both prehistoric and historic archaeology.
  • The number of archaeologists has grown dramatically since the 1960s.
  • The field represents many different theoretical perspectives and acknowledges the need to communicate results to the public.
1. Fifteenth-century Italian scholar Ciriaco de’ Pizzicolli is considered the “first archaeologist”.
  • True
  • False
answer b false
Answer: B. False
  • Most historians list Nabonidus, the last king of the neo-Babylonian Empire as the “first archaeologist”.
answer b false34
Answer: B. False
  • The earliest AD date is AD 1. Use 0 BC to denote AD 0.
3. Which of the following is an example of an artifact:
  • Metal tools
  • Beads and other ornaments
  • Pottery
  • Religious and sacred items
  • All of the above
answer e
Answer: E
  • Metal tools, beads and other ornaments, pottery and religious and sacred items are examples of artifacts.