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Archaeology. Riddles in the Dirt. Archaeology. Αρχαιολογιας – Ancient Discourse The science\art concerned with the material remains of man’s past Firstly directed to Biblical Discoveries Covers both the Magnificent and the Mundane. Ancient Eras. Beginnings.

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Riddles in the Dirt


Αρχαιολογιας– Ancient Discourse

The science\art concerned with the material remains of man’s past

Firstly directed to Biblical Discoveries

Covers both the Magnificent and the Mundane

  • Napoleon in Egypt – 1798 – Rosetta Stone, &c.
  • Excavations in Mesopotamia, Paul-Emile Botta, 1842
  • Excavations of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann, 1870
levant cont
Levant (cont.)

John Garstang (1876-96)

Kathleen Kenyon (1906-1978)

William Foxwell Albright (1891-1971)

archaeology in the levant
Archaeology in the Levant
  • Edward Robinson, 1838, 1852

His work led to further discoveries -

    • Moabite Stone, 1868
    • Siloam Inscription, 1880
  • Sir Flinders Petrie, Tell el-Ḥesi, 1890
dating methods
Dating Methods










pottery dating
Pottery Dating
  • Material
  • Manufacturing Technique
  • Shape
  • Decorations
  • Material
  • Image
  • Writing

Samaria, 4th cent. B.C.E. Silver0.74g. 8-9mm.

Helmeted head of Athena Owl standing and facing with open wings; Aramaic letters "SN" in fields. $500.00.

John Hyrcanus I, 134-104 B.C.E.Bronze. 15mm. Hebrew inscription, "Yehohanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews," within wreath. Rv. Double cornucopia with fillets; pomegranate in center. $200.00.



Handwriting Style

early genesis
Early Genesis

Enuma Elish – Babylonian Creation Account

Gilgamesh Epic – Babylonian Flood Account

black obelisk of shalmaneser iii
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
  • Tribute of Jehu, son of Omri. I received from him: silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden beaker, golden goblets, pitchers of gold, lead, staves for the hand of the king, javelins.
tel dan bet david inscription
Tel Dan – Bet David Inscription

Stone inscription that contains the phrase “House of David”

mesha stele
Mesha Stele

aka Moabite Stone

"I am Mesha, son of Chemosh, king of Moab... My father was king of Moab for thirty years and I became king after my father: and I built this sanctuary to Chemosh in Qerihoh, a sanctuary of refuge: for he saved me from all my oppressors and gave me dominion over all my enemies. Omri was king of Israel and oppressed Moab many days, for Chemosh was angry with his land. And his son succeeded him and he also said I will oppress Moab. In my days he said this, but I got the upper hand of him and his house: and Israel perished for ever.... I have had the ditches of Qerihoh dug by Israelite prisoners..."

cyrus cylinder
Cyrus Cylinder

Confirms the account in Ezra of Cyrus returning the Jews to Judea

persepolis apadana of darius ca 520 b c
Persepolis - Apadana of Darius (ca. 520 B.C.)

Stairway to the Palace depicts many foreign peoples in their traditional clothes and implements

joash inscription
Joash Inscription

Matches the account in 2 Kings 12

qumran manuscripts
Qumran Manuscripts

Ante-dates Hebrew manuscripts by 1,000 years

Important to historical and linguistic studies

james ossuary
James Ossuary

James, son of Joseph,

brother of Jesus

“The James ossuary may be the earliest tangible evidence of Jesus of Nazareth, who until this point we knew only through literary texts.”

Royal Ontario Museum