Scarce “not a lot of” Abundant “a lot of” Water Oil Resources
Oil Production • How has an abundance of Oil and Organization of OPEC affected the economies of SW Asia (Middle East)?
Ethnic Something you cannot change Persians Kurds Arabs Religious Something you choose to practice Islam Christianity Judaism Ethnic vs. Religious
Middle Eastern Ethnic Groups • Persians • Iran • Afghanistan • 75% Muslim • 60% Shia Islamic mysticism • Kurds • Syria • Iraq • Iran • Turkey • The majority of Kurds are Sunni Muslims. • Some minorities include Christianity, Judaism, and Ba’hai. • Arabs • 21 Middle Eastern countries • Saudi Arabia • Syria • Lebanon • Yemen • Jordan • Iraq • Qatar • 90% of Arabs are Muslim. • The remaining10 % are Christian and Jewish.
Islam • Founded in Saudi Arabia • Founded by Muhammad • Holy Cities are Mecca and Medina • 5 Pillars of Islam • Monotheistic • Quran • Abrahamic • Muslims • Sunni • Shia/ Shiite
Judaism • Oldest Religion in the Middle East • Monotheistic • Abrahamic • Anti-Semitism • Zionism • Israel (1948) • Torah (Old Testament) • 10 Commandments
Christianity • Offshoot of Judaism • Founded in the Middle East • Abrahamic • Monotheistic • Jesus= Son of God • Bible • 10 Commandments • Minority in ME • Old and New Testament
Literacy Rate and Standard of Living • Literacy Rate • The % of people in a country (15+) who can read and write Literacy Rate Standard of Living
UNITARY Unitary Characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is held by one central authority. Example: King or Dictator
CONFEDERATION Confederation Voluntary association of independent states, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation Example: OPEC CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA (during civil war)
FEDERAL Federal Characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is divided between on central and several regional authorities Example: USA
AUTOCRATIC Autocratic government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizens have little if any role in the government
OLIGARCHIC Oligarchic (oli-gar-kick) Government by the few, sometimes in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has a very limited role.
DEMOCRATIC Democratic A government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving free elections.
FORMS OF DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT Parliamentary
PARLIAMENTARY Parliamentary A system of Government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of member of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to legislature. May have prime minister elected by the legislature
PRESIDENTIAL Presidential A system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature
Economic Questions Saudi Arabia South Africa China India Japan North Korea Israel Turkey Nigeria • What to produce • How to produce • For Whom to produce Command Free Market When people decide all three When gov’t decides all three
Trade • Specialization of Trade occurs when countries have different natural, human, and capital resources and different ways of combining these resources, they are not equally efficient at producing the goods and services that their residents demand.
Trade Restrictions • Trade Barrier • government policy or regulation that restricts international trade. The barriers can take many forms, including the following terms that include many restrictions in international trade within multiple countries that import and export any items of trade. Tariffs Quotas Embargos
QUOTAS • A type of trade barrier that sets a physical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time.
EMBARGO • EMBARG----NO • Restriction of trade with a specified country…
TARIFFS • A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary. They are usually associated with protectionism, the economic policy of restraining trade between nations. For political reasons, tariffs are usually imposed on imported goods, although they may also be imposed on exported goods.
Human Capital • Human Capital • Amount of money a person is capable of making
Think about it… • If Sudan wanted to increase it’s GDP by increasing Human Capital what could the country do???? • Invest money into _____________ and _____________.......
Capital • Capital • assets available for use in the production of further assets
Think about it… • If Sudan wanted to increase it’s GDP by increasing Capital what could the country do???? • Invest money into _____________ and _____________.......
Establishment of Israel • WWII • Jews were persecuted during the Holocaust in Germany • Anti-Semitism • Prejudice against or hostility towards Jews United Nations voted to divide Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab; • as accepted by Zionist leaders but rejected by Arab leaders. • Creation of Israel has led to continuing religious wars
1299 The Ottoman Empire begins in modern-day Turkey
1451 The Ottomans rule a majority of the cities in the Middle East and Europe.
1453 The Ottomans establish the capital of Constantinople in present-day Turkey.
1500 The Ottomans gain control of the Eastern Mediterranean, North Africa, and major trade routes.
1520 Ottomans capture Mecca and Medina.
1800s The Ottoman Empire begins to decline and is known as the “sick man of Europe”.
1914 WWI begins.
1918 The Ottoman Empire ends.
1920 Naaaah, they will just get along perfectly, I think. • Europe divides up the Ottoman Empire. • The division is part of the Treaty of Sevres. Should we divide these into countries based on ethnic groups? You’re going down Sunni!! No, you’re going down Shia!!
Dividing Up the Ottoman Empire • Europe paid little attention to ethnic, religious, and tribal lines when they drew the Middle East. • The people of the Middle East were grouped together based on the ideas of the Europeans instead of what the people of the Middle East wanted.