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Ancient Rome: Punic Wars. SOL WHI.6d, e, & f. Roman Expansion. After Rome overthrew the Etruscan government they began to expand through military conquest and political policies. By 265 B.C/B.C.E the Romans had expanded its territory to include most of the Italian Peninsula. Military

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ancient rome punic wars

Ancient Rome: Punic Wars

SOL WHI.6d, e, & f

roman expansion
Roman Expansion
  • After Rome overthrew the Etruscan government they began to expand through military conquest and political policies. By 265 B.C/B.C.E the Romans had expanded its territory to include most of the Italian Peninsula.
  • Military

The Roman army played a big role in their expansion. All adult male citizens were required to serve in the army. The main unit of the Roman army was the legion. The Legionnaires consisted of 4,500-6,000 citizens. These men were well trained and disciplined.

roman expansion1
Roman Expansion
  • Political Policies

As Rome conquered neighboring territories they implemented political policies that would ensure loyalty. They granted full citizenship to nearby Italian cities and partial citizenship to cities further away. Partial citizenship allowed people to own property and marry but not vote. All conquered people were required to provide land for Roman farmers and distant allies could remain independent as long as they provided soldiers for the Roman army

prelude to the punic wars
Prelude to the Punic Wars

Why do you think these two empires went to war?

1 st punic war
1st Punic War
  • When: 264 B.C./B.C.E and lasted 23 years
  • Cause: Rome feared Carthage would gain control of all of Sicily and cross the Strait of Messina into Italy.
  • Rome came to the aid of the city of Messina as it rebelled against Carthaginian rule. This would be the catalyst for the wars.
  • Events of the War: During this war Rome would build a navy using a captured Carthaginian ship as a model. They would also use boarding bridges for hand to hand combat aboard enemy ships.
  • Outcome: In 241 B.C./B.C.E a peace agreement was signed and Carthage had to give up Sicily and some money. After the war some Roman senators renegotiated the peace terms and acquired the island of Corsica and Sardinia.
2 nd punic war
2nd Punic War
  • When: 218 B.C./B.C.E. and lasted 16 years.

- After the 1st Punic War, Carthage began to regroup and expand its empire in Spain.

- When Carthage attacked the city of Saguntumin Spain, Rome felt it was a threat to their interest ( the city of Saguntum and Rome had an alliance) and declared war against Carthage.

2 nd punic war1
2nd Punic War
  • Hannibal, the great Carthaginian general, would lead his army, which included elephants, through Europe and across the Pyrenees and Alps to invade Italy.
  • Hannibal’s father, Hamilcar, was instrumental in Carthage’s Spanish expansion. Hamilcar was filled with hatred for Rome and shamefrom the 1st Punic War. He would pass on his hatred and shame to Hannibal.
  • His plan against Rome was simple: early decisive victories and convince Roman allies to side with Carthage.
  • He was successful with early decisive victories would was not able to convince Rome’s allies to join him.
  • Without the necessary equipment needed to take the city of Rome, Hannibal devastatedsurrounding cities and country side.
2 nd punic war2
2nd Punic War
  • Battle of Cannae

-Early, Roman adopted a delay approach to Hannibal. The plan was to wait him out until he was tired, supplies diminished, and not meet him head on. They had learned that Hannibal was a shrewd and efficient general. Though effective this plan was not popular with the public or the politicians.

-This policy would change for one battle, Cannae. New consuls were elected with the promise of a decisive victory over Hannibal. They were granted double their normal army to fight and decided to draw Hannibal out in the open. Rome out numbered Hannibal 2-1.

-Hannibal soundly defeated the Roman army. About 10,000 of the 70,000 Roman soldiers survived the fight. Hannibal’s tactics are still studied today as a maneuver to defeat a larger army on an open field.

-After this battle Rome would go back to it’s delay policy and not openly face Hannibal.

2 nd punic war3
2nd Punic War
  • Scipio, Roman general

- While Hannibal was preoccupied in Rome, Rome sent a young general Scipio to Spain.

- Scipio conquered Spain and divided the area into two Roman provinces. This effectively cut off Hannibal’s supplies while in Italy.

-Scipio then crossed over to Africa and marched on Carthage.

- With Hannibal in Italy, Carthage was somewhat defenseless against Scipio. They quickly called for peace and Hannibal was sent home, having won every major battle he had fought.

2 nd punic war4
2nd Punic War
  • Battle of Zama

- Hannibal and Scipio face off on the Battlefield near Carthage. Scipio would win, delivering Hannibal’s first lost and the complete defeat of Carthage.

- This battle would end the 2nd Punic War and Scipio would be honored with the name “Africanus” because he conquered Africa.

2 nd punic war outcome
2nd Punic War: Outcome
  • Carthage was defeated. The price was its colonies in Spain, surrounding territory in Africa, most of its navy, and even more money.
3 rd punic war
3rd Punic War
  • When: 149 B.C/B.C.E and lasted 3 years
  • Cause: Hatred/ Rome hated Carthage

- After losing everything in the second Punic War, Carthage did try to recover some of its prosperity. This displeased Rome and they declared war on Carthage.

  • Events: Rome burned the city, sold remaining inhabitants into slavery, and was rumored to have sowed salt into the soil so nothing would grow. It was just that a rumor.
  • Outcome: Rome dominated the Mediterranean basin which led to expanded trade, greater wealth, and the spread of Roman culture.
war macedonia greece
War: Macedonia & Greece
  • During the 2nd Punic War Phillip V of Macedon became allies with Hannibal and began to threaten Rome to the east.
  • Rome began to fight a series of wars with Macedonia and defeat them in 197 B.C/B.C.E.
  • By 133 B.C/B.C.E Greek cities would be under Rome’s protection.
effects of the war government
Effects of the War: Government
  • Review: What was the role of the Senate in the Roman Republic?
  • Senate and nobility more powerful
  • Provincial government more corrupt
effects of the punic wars society
Effects of the Punic Wars: Society
  • High unemployment in the city of Rome
  • Need for public welfare
  • Expanded trade created a new social class of wealthy business people, Equities
effects of the punic wars agriculture
Effects of the Punic Wars: Agriculture
  • Small farmers lost their land
  • Rome dependant upon provinces for grain
project punic wars
Project: Punic Wars
  • The Mission:

You are the top field reporters of KGMS. Your mission is to send radio reports of the events of the wars. Information is needed on each Punic war, the battles, the people, and the effects at home.

  • Your Equipment:

For this mission you will need your field (class) notes, a computer, the audacity program, and your written story. There are resource websites linked to my webpage for additional resources.

  • Your Requirements:
    • 1- Introduction( your name, reporting with KGMS World News, period, and Title of Story)
    • 2- Must use proper names of people, places, and events.
    • 3- Describe where you are ( the sound, the smell, the looks, the atmosphere)
    • 4- Length: 1 ½ -3 min.
examples of news stories
Examples of News Stories
  • Gaza Cease-Fire Negotiations Stall
  • Israeli Forces Enter Gaza City
  • The Toll Of War On Iraqi Lives