Ancient Rome: Punic Wars. SOL WHI.6d, e, & f. Roman Expansion. After Rome overthrew the Etruscan government they began to expand through military conquest and political policies. By 265 B.C/B.C.E the Romans had expanded its territory to include most of the Italian Peninsula. Military
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SOL WHI.6d, e, & f
The Roman army played a big role in their expansion. All adult male citizens were required to serve in the army. The main unit of the Roman army was the legion. The Legionnaires consisted of 4,500-6,000 citizens. These men were well trained and disciplined.
As Rome conquered neighboring territories they implemented political policies that would ensure loyalty. They granted full citizenship to nearby Italian cities and partial citizenship to cities further away. Partial citizenship allowed people to own property and marry but not vote. All conquered people were required to provide land for Roman farmers and distant allies could remain independent as long as they provided soldiers for the Roman army
Why do you think these two empires went to war?
- After the 1st Punic War, Carthage began to regroup and expand its empire in Spain.
- When Carthage attacked the city of Saguntumin Spain, Rome felt it was a threat to their interest ( the city of Saguntum and Rome had an alliance) and declared war against Carthage.
-Early, Roman adopted a delay approach to Hannibal. The plan was to wait him out until he was tired, supplies diminished, and not meet him head on. They had learned that Hannibal was a shrewd and efficient general. Though effective this plan was not popular with the public or the politicians.
-This policy would change for one battle, Cannae. New consuls were elected with the promise of a decisive victory over Hannibal. They were granted double their normal army to fight and decided to draw Hannibal out in the open. Rome out numbered Hannibal 2-1.
-Hannibal soundly defeated the Roman army. About 10,000 of the 70,000 Roman soldiers survived the fight. Hannibal’s tactics are still studied today as a maneuver to defeat a larger army on an open field.
-After this battle Rome would go back to it’s delay policy and not openly face Hannibal.
- While Hannibal was preoccupied in Rome, Rome sent a young general Scipio to Spain.
- Scipio conquered Spain and divided the area into two Roman provinces. This effectively cut off Hannibal’s supplies while in Italy.
-Scipio then crossed over to Africa and marched on Carthage.
- With Hannibal in Italy, Carthage was somewhat defenseless against Scipio. They quickly called for peace and Hannibal was sent home, having won every major battle he had fought.
- Hannibal and Scipio face off on the Battlefield near Carthage. Scipio would win, delivering Hannibal’s first lost and the complete defeat of Carthage.
- This battle would end the 2nd Punic War and Scipio would be honored with the name “Africanus” because he conquered Africa.
- After losing everything in the second Punic War, Carthage did try to recover some of its prosperity. This displeased Rome and they declared war on Carthage.
You are the top field reporters of KGMS. Your mission is to send radio reports of the events of the wars. Information is needed on each Punic war, the battles, the people, and the effects at home.
For this mission you will need your field (class) notes, a computer, the audacity program, and your written story. There are resource websites linked to my webpage for additional resources.