Unit 3 and 4 Israel, Persia, Rome, and Greece
What religion is shown below? Judaism
The Jews influenced Western culture • Overview: • The Hebrew’s history, legends, and moral laws are a major influence on Western culture, and they began a tradition also shared by Christianity and Islam.
Origins of Judaism • The PHOENCIANS lived in a region at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea that was later called Palestine. • Many ancient people lived here and contributed to WORLD CIVILIZATION. • The area of Palestine called CANAAN was the ancient home of the Hebrews, later called the Jews. • Canaan was the land promised to the Hebrew people
Importance of Palestine’s locationAnyone take an educated guess of the importance of this location?
Crossroads • By land, Palestine connected Asia and Africa and two Great empires to the East, both eager to expand. • East: Assyria and Babylonia • West: Egypt • Seaports: The Mediterranean Sea, which connected the Atlantic and the Red Sea • Hebrews settle in Canaan, a land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River
Torah • Torah is the most sacred writings of the Jewish tradition • Contains the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. • Christians respect them as part of the Old Testament • Torah explains actual events and stories about life lessons
Abraham • In the Torah, God chose Abraham to be the “father” of the Hebrew people. • God told him to move his people and their flocks to Canaan (2000 BC.E.), the promise land. (story told in the book of Genesis) • He moved from Ur (Tigris and Euphrates region) to Canaan. • In 1650 B.C.E., Abraham’s descendents moved to Egypt
One God • The Hebrews were monotheists (monotheism- Greek words: mono=one and theism = god-worship) • Yahweh had power over everyone. • Hebrews asked Yahweh for protection from their enemies • Yahweh looked after the Hebrews because Abraham promised to obey him. In return Yahweh promised to look after his descendants. • This mutual agreement is called a covenant.
Tell the class about this photo Moses and the Ten Commandments What is the importance of the Ten Commandments to the western world?
Birth of the Ten commandments(click) • Hebrews fled to Egypt due to a drought and famine. • Egypt accepted them but later forced them into slavery. • A man named of Moses led the Jews out of Egypt called “the Exodus.” (1300 and 1200 B.C.E.) The Jews celebrate this event every year during the festival of the Passover. (click on Exodus) • A new covenant was made during the travels across Sinai (Sy-ny) Peninsula. Moses came down from Mt. Sinai with two stone tablets with ten written laws written by Yahweh, the Ten Commandments.
Ten Commandments • These commandments and other teachings that Moses delivered to his people became the basis for the civil and religious laws of Judaism. • The Hebrews believed that these laws formed a new covenant between God and the Hebrew people. • Protection from God for in turn, promise of keeping God’s Commandments.
Breakdown the Ten Commandments The first four commandments concerned the Hebrew’s relationship with God and the last six concerned the Hebrew’s relationship with one another. Ten Commandments = High Moral Standard
Code of Law • The Ten Commandments were apart of a code of laws delivered to Moses. • The code included other rules regulating social and religious behavior. • This code resembled Hammurabi’s Code with its attitude of “an for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.” • The code was strict but with the expression of God’s mercy. • Prophets (religious teachers) taught that the Hebrews had a duty both to worship God and to live justly with one another = ethical monotheism. • This Hebrew idea has influenced human behavior for thousands of years through Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Inside Judaism - Jewish History (click) • How did the belief in one God change the world?
The Kingdom of Israel • Because of the Harsh and dry conditions of Canaan, the Hebrews expanded south and north from their south central area of ancient Palestine.
Saul and David Establish a Kingdom • Judges (God created judges to unite tribes and provide judicial and military leadership) pulled together scattered tribes for a united military effort. • Philistines = threat to Hebrew’s in ancient Palestine. • Canaanite = non threat to Hebrews in ancient Palestine • After the exile, the tribe left was the tribe Judah. As a result the Hebrews came to be known as Jews and their religion Judaism.
Saul and David Establish a Kingdom • 1020 to 922 B.C.E. The Hebrews united under three kings: Saul, David, and Solomon. The new kingdom was Israel. • For 100 years, Israel enjoyed its greatest period of power and independence. • Solomon was David’s son who created a great temple. The temple was built to glorify God. • The temple was also the permanent home for the Arc of the Covenant which contained the tablets of Moses’s law. • Later the kingdom divided into two- with Israel in the north and Judah in the south. • Eventually the Assyrians took over the land and later Babylonian Empire was victorious and destroyed Solomon’s Temple. • The survivors were exiled to Babylon. • The prophet Ezekiel urged his people to keep their religion alive in a foreign land.
Ark of the Covenant • Raiders of the Lost Ark - The opening of the Ark - The LORD's vengeance!! • THE ARK OF THE COVENANT - Discovery/History/Science (documentary)
Persia Cyrus the Great Cambyses Darius Zoroaster
Persia Homeland Persia included what is today Iran. Persia came about from Indo-Europeans settling in the mountains and plateaus east of the Fertile Crescent. The area extended from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf. This area had a wealth of minerals – copper gold, lead, silver….= trade put the settlers in contact with their neighbors in the east and west.
Persian Homeland The Medes and other tribes helped to overthrow the Assyrian Empire in 612 B.C.E. Then two major powers emerged: Medes and the Persians. Persia soon dominated the Medes and a huge empire by a remarkable king.
Cyrus the Great • 550 B.C.E the world started to pay attention to Persia. That year, Cyrus began his conquest. • Anatolia to the Indus river = 2000 miles
Cyrus most enduring legacy • His method of GOVERNING. • His kindness toward conquered people. • He revealed a wise and tolerant view of “empire.” • For example he believed in honoring local customs and religions. Instead of destroying the local temple, Cyrus would kneel there to pray.
Cyrus and Babylon • Cyrus conquered Babylon in 539 B.C.E.. Babylonia open the gates to Cyrus and Cyrus thanked them for a bloodless victory. • Princes and governors bowed to Cyrus and kissed his feet. • A year later, Cyrus allowed 40,000 exiles to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple of Solomon in 515 B.C.E. and the wall around Jerusalem was rebuilt in 445 B.C.E. • The Jews were ever so grateful to Cyrus – the called him one of God’s anointed ones.
Cambyses • Cyrus died in 530 B.C.E. • His son, Cambyses, extended the Persian Empire by conquering Egypt. • But Cambyses ignored the tolerant ways of his father. For example, Cambyses publicly scorned the Egyptian’s religion and ordered the images of Egyptian gods to be burned. • After eight years, Cambyses died. • What do you think happened after Cambyses death? • Immediately, widespread rebellions broke out across the empire. Persia surprisingly is in a fragile state of rule.
Darius • Darius begun his career as a member of the king’s bodyguard. A group of an elite group of Persian soldiers, the Ten Thousand Immortals, helped Darius seize the throne in 522-521 B.C.E.
Darius • Darius spent the first few years of his reign putting down revolts. • He spent the next few years establishing an unusually efficient and well organized administration. • He expanded the empire to the east and up the mountains of present day Afghanistan. • The empire now extended over 2,500 miles from east to west. • Darius only conquering failure was his inability to conquer Greece.
Darius’s administration • Darius’s greatest genius lay in ADMINISTRATION. • To govern his vast empire he divided it into 20 provinces. • Provinces- homeland to people where they spoke their own language and practiced their own religion and followed their own laws. • The administrative policy of many groups (nationalities) living by their own laws within one empire would be repeated practice in southwest Asia and continued in the Ottoman Empire of the early 1900s.
Darius’s rule is absolute • Darius ruled his empire with absolute power. • In each province, Darius installed a governor called a satrap, a local ruler. • To ensure their loyalty to Darius, Darius set out inspectors known as “King’s Eyes and Ears.” • They checked up on the administration of each province in every corner of the empire. • Darius also installed an Army Leader and a tax collector for each province
Holding the Empire together • Two other ways the Persian King held the empire together was standard money and a road system. • Darius borrowed the idea of standard money from the Lydian's of Asia Minor. • Standard money= coins with standard value • No longer did you have to measure and weigh odd pieces of gold or silver to pay for product needs • Promoted trade • Trade helped to hold the empire together. Film- Persian Coins
Road system to hold the empire together • Royal Road of the Persian Empire ran from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia, a distance of 1677 miles. Film - RoyalRoad
How would the Royal Road enable the ruler to maintain power in the empire? • The ruler could hear news from distant territories while it was still fresh and send messages back quickly. If messages and news could not travel quickly, then…..? • The ruler’s (i.e.. Darius) reactions would always be out-of-date and local officials might move toward independence.
Persian Religion • Why should so much suffering and chaos exist in the world? • By the time of Darius rule, about 2500 years had passed since the first Sumerian city-states had been built. During those years, people of the Fertile Crescent had endured war, conquest, and famine. This gave rise to a basic question: Why should so much suffering and chaos exist in the world?
Zoroaster • A religious reformer • Taught: two spiritual armies fight for possession of a person’s soul. • God of truth is Ahura Mazda • God of evil and darkness is Ahriman • Paradise or suffer in fiery pit after final judgment • People’s own choices controlled their fate.
Zoroastrian religion • Developed ideas of heaven and hell and final judgment • Similar concepts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam • Zoroastrian religion spread towards India.- (Largest group of Zoroastrians in the world today.) • The cult Mithra , a Zoroastrian god, spread westward to become a popular religion among the military legions in the Roman Empire. • Film- Zoroastrian religion
Legacy of the Persian Empire • Tolerance and good government • Political order to Southwest Asia • Preserved ideas from earlier cultures and found new ways to live and rule • Respect of other cultures helped to preserve those cultures for the future • An empire that dominated the region for 200 years under Cyrus the Great
Geography of Greece • Geography shaped Greek Life • How did the geography shape the lives of the Greeks? Ancient Greece consisted mainly of a mountainous peninsula jutting out into the Mediterranean Sea. 1400 islands in the Aegean Sea and Ionian Sea. Sea shaped Greek civilization just as rivers shaped the ancient civilizations • Early Greeks lived around the sea and not inland • What seas surrounded the Greek islands? Aegean Sea and the Ionian Sea • The Aegean, Ionian, and Black Seas were important transportation routes for the Greek people. (liquid highways) • What did transportation of the seas give the Greek communities? • Sea travel was important for trade, because Greece itself was poor in natural resources such as timber, metals and little usable farmland.