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Time Line Middle Ages (450-1450) Rome sacked by Vandals 455 Beowolf c. 700 First Crusade 1066 Black Death 1347-52 Joan of Arc executed by English 1431 Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance The Middle Ages Period of wars and mass migration

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time line
Time Line

Middle Ages (450-1450)

Rome sacked by Vandals 455

Beowolf c. 700

First Crusade 1066

Black Death 1347-52

Joan of Arc executed by English 1431

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

the middle ages
The Middle Ages

Period of wars and mass migration

Strong class distinctions

  • Nobility: castles, knights in armor, feasting
  • Peasantry: lived in huts; serfs—part of land
  • Clergy: ruled everyone; only monks literate

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

the middle ages3
The Middle Ages


  • Early: Romanesque
  • Late: Gothic

Visual Arts

  • Stressed iconic/symbolic, not realism

Late Middle Ages saw technological progress

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

chapter 1 music in the middle ages
Chapter 1: Music in the Middle Ages

Church dominates musical activity

  • Most musicians were priests
  • Women did not sing in mixed church settings

Music primarily vocal and sacred

  • Instruments not used in church

Chapter 1


Gregorian Chant

Was official music of Roman Catholic Church

  • No longer common since Second Vatican Council

Monophonic melody set to Latin text

Flexible rhythm without meter and beat

Named for Pope Gregory I (r. 590-604)

Originally no music notation system

  • Notation developed over several centuries

The Church Modes

“Otherworldly” sound—basis of Gregorian Chant

Different ½ and whole steps than modern scales

Middle Ages and Renaissance used these scales

  • Some Western Music uses these scale patterns
  • What Do You Do With a Drunken Sailor?—Dorian mode
  • When Johnny Comes Marching Home—Aeolian mode

Chapter 1


O Successores (You Successors)

Hildegard of Bingen

Listening Guide: p. 70

Brief Set, CD 1:50


Originally written without accompaniment

This recording includes a drone—long, sustained notes

Note extended range of melody

Written for nuns by a nun (to be sung in convent)

Chapter 1

time line8
Time Line

Renaissance (1450-1600)

  • Guttenberg Bible 1456
  • Columbus reaches America 1492
  • Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa c. 1503
  • Michelangelo: David 1504
  • Raphael: School of Athens 1505
  • Martin Luther’s 95 Theses 1517
  • Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet 1596

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

the renaissance
The Renaissance

Rebirth of human learning and creativity

Time of great explorers


Fascination with ancient Greece and Rome

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

the renaissance10

David by Michelangelo

The Renaissance

Visual art becomes more realistic

  • Mythology is favorite subject
  • Nude body, as in ancient times, is shown

Weakening of the Catholic Church

Education and literacy now status symbol

  • Result of invention of printing press

Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance

chapter 2 music in the renaissance
Chapter 2: Music in the Renaissance

Church choirs grew in size (all male)

Rise of the individual patron

  • Musical center shifted from church to courts
  • Court composers wrote secular and sacred music
  • Women did not sing in mixed church settings

Chapter 2


Musicians: higher status and pay than before

  • Composers became known for their work

Many composers were Franco-Flemish

  • Worked throughout Europe, especially in Italy

Italy became music capital in 16th century

  • Other important centers: Germany, England, Spain

Chapter 2


Characteristics of Renaissance Music

Words and Music

Vocal music more important than instrumental

Word painting/text painting

Chapter 2




Primarily vocal - a cappella

  • Instruments, if present, doubled the vocal parts

Rhythm and Melody

Rhythm “flows” and overlaps

  • Composers less concerned with metrical accents

Smooth, stepwise melodies predominate

  • Melodies overlap rhythmically between voices

Chapter 2

sacred music in the renaissance
Sacred Music in the Renaissance

Two main forms:


  • Short polyphonic choral work
  • Latin text usually overlaid with vernacular text
  • Often borrows lowest voice part from a chant

Mass—the Catholic worship service

  • Long work that includes five main parts of service
  • Kyrie
  • Gloria
  • Credo
  • Sanctus
  • Agnus Dei

Chapter 2


Josquin Desprez

1440-1521 (contemporary of Columbus & da Vinci)

Wrote both sacred and secular music

  • Worked with the Papal Choir in Rome
  • Worked for King Louis XII of France

Leading composer of his time; famous while alive

  • His work influenced other composers
  • Was highly praised by Martin Luther

Chapter 2


Ave Maria…Virgo Serena

Josquin Desprez

Vocal Music Guide: p. 82

Brief Set, CD 1:56

Listen for: Four voices

Polyphonic imitation

Overlapping voice parts

Chapter 2

time line18
Time Line

Shakespeare: Hamlet 1600

Cervantes: Don Quixote 1605

Jamestown founded 1607

Galileo: Earth orbits Sun 1610

King James Bible 1611

Newton: Principia Mathematica 1687

Witchcraft trials in Salem, Mass. 1692

Defoe: Robinson Crusoe 1719

Swift: Gulliver’s Travels 1726


the baroque style
The Baroque Style

Time of flamboyant lifestyle

Baroque style “fills the space”

Visual Art

  • Implies motion
  • Note pictures p. 93
  • Busy
  • Note pictures p. 94


the baroque style20
The Baroque Style


  • Elaborate
  • Note picture p. 95

Change in approach to science

  • Experiment-based, not just observation
  • Inventions and improvements result


chapter 2 music in baroque society
Chapter 2:Music in Baroque Society

Music written to order

  • New music, not old-fashioned, was desired


  • Music and musical resources indicated affluence

Court Music Director

  • Good prestige, pay, and other benefits
  • Still considered a skilled servant

Chapter 2

Some aristocrats were musicians

Church music was very elaborate

  • Most people heard music only in church

Some, though few, public opera houses

Music careers taught by apprenticeship

  • Orphanages taught music as a trade

Chapter 2


Characteristics of Baroque Music

  • Expresses one mood per piece

Unity of Mood


  • Rhythmic patterns are repeated throughout


  • Opening melody heard again and again


  • Volumes constant with abrupt changes


  • Late baroque mostly polyphonic
  • Extensive use of imitation

Chapter 1


Chords and the Basso Continuo

  • Emphasis on way chords follow each other
  • Bass part considered foundation of the harmony
  • Basso Continuo: bass part with numbers to represent chord tones
  • Similar to modern jazz and pop “fake book” notation

Words and Music

  • Text painting/word painting continues
  • Words frequently emphasized by extension through many rapid notes

Chapter 1


The Baroque Orchestra

Based on violin family of instruments

Small by modern standards

Varying instrumentation

  • Combinations of strings, woodwinds, brass, & percussion (tympani)

Nucleus was basso continuo unit

Composers specified instrumentation

  • Timbre was subordinate to melody, rhythm, and harmony

Chapter 1


Baroque Forms

Instrumental music frequently made up of contrasting movements

  • Movement: a piece complete in itself, also part of a larger whole
  • Performed with pause between movements
  • Unity of mood within individual movements
  • Movements often contrast with each other

Chapter 1

chapter 3 the concerto grosso and ritornello form
Chapter 3: The Concerto Grosso and Ritornello Form

Concerto Grosso

  • For small group of soloists and orchestra
  • Multi-movement work
  • Usually 3 movements
  • Fast
  • Slow (usually quieter)
  • Fast (sometimes dance-like)

Chapter 3

  • Frequently used in first and last movements of concerto grosso
  • Theme repeatedly presented in fragments
  • Contrast between solo sections and tutti

Chapter 3


Brandenberg Concerto No. 5 in D major

First movement

Johann Sebastian Bach

Listening Outline p. 105

Brief Set, CD 1:63

For string orchestra and group of soloists

Soloists: flute, violin, and harpsichord

Ritornello form

Chapter 3

time line30
Time Line

Seven Years’ War 1756-1763

Louis XVI in France 1774-1792

American Declaration of Independence 1776

French Revolution 1789

Napoleon: first French consul 1799

Napoleonic Wars 1803-1815

Goethe: Faust 1808

Austin: Pride and Prejudice 1813


the classical era

Fragonard: The Lover Crowned

The Classical Era

Scientific advances changed world view

  • Faith in the power of reason
  • Undermining of traditional authority
  • Social organization
  • Religious establishment
  • Age of Enlightenment
  • Rise of the middle class worker

Visual Art

  • Moved away from ornate Baroque style


chapter 1 the classical style
Chapter 1: The Classical Style

Transition to Period: ~1730-1770

C.P.E. and J.C. Bach were early pioneers

Music and visual arts stress balance and structure

Three main composers:

  • Joseph Haydn
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • Ludwig van Beethoven

Chapter 1


Characteristics of The Classical Style

Contrast of Mood

  • Contrast both between and within movements

Flexibility of rhythm

  • Multiple rhythmic patterns in a piece


  • Mostly homophonic, but with frequent shifts

Chapter 1



  • Tuneful, easy to sing, folk/popular-based


  • Emotions expressed in shades of dynamics
  • Use of gradual dynamic changes
  • Related to development of the piano

End of the Basso Continuo

Chapter 1


The Classical Orchestra

Standardization of instrumentation

Increase in size of orchestra

  • Still smaller than that of today

Composers made use of various timbres available

  • Instruments not treated as all equal, as in the Baroque
  • Melodies move around between instruments

Chapter 1

chapter 10 joseph haydn
Chapter 10: Joseph Haydn

1732-1809—early and mid-classical period Austrian composer (long life)

Talent recognized early

  • At age eight was sent to Vienna to be a choir boy
  • Dismissed from school—voice changed
  • Worked in Vienna and continued studies

Esterhazy family’s composer for 30 years

  • Employment status as skilled servant
  • Became famous in Europe at this time
  • Moved to Vienna at Prince’s death

Made concert trips to London

Prolific composer

Chapter 10


Haydn’s Music

Pioneer in development of classical forms

  • Both Mozart and Beethoven were influenced by Haydn

Made use of folk music in serious compositions

104 symphonies, 68 string quartets

  • Possibly invented the string quartet form

Extensive output in other forms:

  • Piano sonatas
  • Piano trios
  • Divertimentos
  • Concertos
  • Operas
  • Masses

Chapter 10


Classical Forms

Instrumental works usually in multi-movement form

Frequently four movements

  • First—Fast
  • Second—Slow
  • Third—Dance-related
  • Fourth—Fast

Multi-movement works for instrumental groups:

  • Symphony—for orchestra
  • String quartet—two violins, viola, and cello
  • Sonata—usually for one or two instruments

Chapter 1

chapter 4 theme and variations
Chapter 4: Theme and Variations

Single part form—no large contrasting “B” section

  • ( A A’ A” A”’…)

Basic idea presented, then repeated over and over

  • Each repeat alters (varies) the musical idea
  • Each variation is about the same length as the original idea
  • Variations may alter melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, timbre, or all of these

Chapter 4


Symphony No. 94 in G Major, 1791

(Surprise Symphony)

Franz Joseph Haydn

Second Movement

Listening Outline: p. 166

Brief Set, CD 2:32

Listen for: Theme and variations form

“Surprise” chord near beginning

Chapter 4

time line41
Time Line

Monroe Doctrine 1823

Hugo: Hunchback of Notre Dame 1831

Dickens: Oliver Twist 1837

Dumas: The Three Musketeers 1844

Poe: The Raven 1845

Darwin: Origin of Species 1859

American Civil War 1861-1865

Twain: Huckleberry Finn 1884

Bell invents telephone 1876


romanticism 1820 1900
Romanticism (1820-1900)

Stressed emotion, imagination, and individualism

Emotional subjectivity basis of arts

Favorite artistic topics:

  • Fantasy and the supernatural
  • Middle Ages/concept of chivalry and romance
  • Architecture revived Gothic elements
  • Nature as mirror of the human heart

Period of the Industrial Revolution

  • Resulted in social and economic changes


chapter 1 romanticism in music
Chapter 1: Romanticism in Music

Many important Romantic composers

  • Franz Schubert
  • Bedrich Smetana
  • Antonin Dvořák
  • Peter Tchaikovsky
  • Johannes Brahms
  • Giuseppe Verdi
  • Giacomo Puccini
  • Richard Wagner
  • Robert Schumann
  • Clara Schumann
  • Frederic Chopin
  • Franz Liszt
  • Felix Mendelssohn
  • Hector Berlioz

Chapter 1


Continued use of classical period forms

  • Much individual alteration and adjustment

Greater range of tone color, dynamics, and pitch than in classical period

Expanded harmony—complex chords

Chapter 1


Characteristics of Romantic Music

Individuality of Style

Composers wanted uniquely identifiable music

  • Worked to find their own voice

In romantic music, it is far easier to identify individual composers through listening

Chapter 1


Expressive Aims and Subjects

All approaches were explored:

  • Flamboyance, intimacy, unpredictability, melancholy, rapture, longing, …

Romantic love still the focus of songs and operas

  • Lovers frequently depicted as unhappy and facing overwhelming obstacles

Dark topics draw composers

Chapter 1


Colorful Harmony

Chords built with notes not in traditional keys

  • Chromatic harmony

Harmonic instability a consciously used device

  • Wide use of keys
  • Frequent and rapid modulation

Chapter 1


Expanded Range of Dynamics,

Pitch, and Tempo

Dynamics ff, pp expanded to ffff and pppp

Extremely high and low pitches were added

Changes in mood frequently underlined by (sometimes subtle) shifts in tempo

  • Rubato: slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo

Chapter 1


Forms: Miniature and Monumental

Some composers went on for hours

  • Required hundreds of performers

Others’ music lasted only a few minutes

  • Written for a single instrument

Composers wrote symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, concertos, operas, and many other classically traditional works

Chapter 1

chapter 7 frederic chopin
Chapter 7: Frederic Chopin

Polish-born musician (1810-1849)

Early to mid-romantic composer

Went to Paris at age 21

  • Europe’s romantic period artistic capital

Wrote almost exclusively for piano

  • Made extensive use of piano pedals

Composed mostly for chamber concert

  • Avoided concert halls

Affair with Aurore Dudevant (a.k.a. George Sand)

Chapter 7


Chopin’s Music

Developed personal style at early age

  • Not program music, but evokes an image
  • Unique harmonic style influenced others

Most of his pieces are elegant miniatures

Chapter 7


Nocturne in E Flat Major, op. 9, no. 2

Frederic Chopin (1830-31)

Listening Outline: p. 232

Brief Set, CD 3:26

Nocturne (night piece)—slow, lyrical, intimate piece for piano

Listen for: Expressive, emotional presentation with subtle shifts in tempo and dynamics

Note pedal notation on printed music (p. 233)

Chapter 7

chapter 18 richard wagner
Chapter 18: Richard Wagner

German (1813-1883)

Mid- to late-romantic composer

Studied in Germany

  • Later moved to Paris—did not work out
  • Returned to Germany, ran into trouble
  • Finally settled and succeeded in Munich, Bavaria

Lived large off of others—ran up debts

Wrote in many styles, famous for opera

Chapter 18


Wagner’s Music

His works were large, full-blown affairs

No recitatives and arias—just non-stop music

Adapted idee fixe to leitmotif approach

Huge orchestrations for operas

  • Requires big voices to be heard

Chapter 18


Die Walkure (The Valkyrie, 1856)

Richard Wagner

Act I: Love scene (conclusion)

Storyline of the Ring Cycle and this scene (p. 279)

Vocal Music Guide: p. 282

Brief Set, CD 4:1

Listen for: Huge production, large orchestrations

Big, powerful voices required

Use of leitmotif for people, places, things, and ideas

Chapter 18

time line56
Time Line

Freud: Interpretation of Dreams 1900

Einstein: special theory of relativity 1905

First World War 1914-1918

Russian Revolution begins 1917

Great Depression begins 1929

Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany 1933

Second World War 1939-1945

Atomic bomb destroys Hiroshima 1945


time line57
Time Line

Korean War 1950-1953

Crick & Watson: structure of DNA 1953

Vietnam War 1955-1975

President Kennedy assassinated 1963

American astronauts land on moon 1969

Dissolution of the Soviet Union 1991

Mandela elected president of South Africa 1994

Terrorist attacks in U.S. 2001

War in Iraq began 2003



Characteristics of Twentieth-Century Music

Tone Color

Unusual playing techniques were called for

  • Glissando, flutter tongue, col legno, extended notes

Percussion use was greatly expanded

  • New instruments were added/created
  • Xylophone, celesta, woodblock, …
  • Other “instruments:” typewriter, automobile brake drum, siren

Chapter 1


Music not written for choirs of instruments

  • Composers wrote for timbres, or “groups of soloists”
  • Unusual groupings of instruments for small ensembles
  • Orchestra scoring also reflects this trend

Chapter 1



Consonance and Dissonance

Harmony and treatment of chords changed

  • Before 1900: consonant and dissonant
  • Opposite sides of the coin
  • After 1900: degrees of dissonance

Chapter 1



Rhythmic vocabulary expanded

  • Emphasis upon irregularity and unpredictability
  • Shifting meters
  • Irregular meters
  • Polyrhythm

Chapter 1



Melody no longer bound by harmony’s notes

Major and minor keys no longer dominate

Melody may be based upon a variety of scales, or even all twelve tones

  • Frequent wide leaps
  • Rhythmically irregular
  • Unbalanced phrases

Chapter 1

chapter 8 arnold schoenberg
Chapter 8: Arnold Schoenberg

Born in Vienna (1874-1951)

First to completely abandon the traditional tonal system

  • Father of the twelve-tone system

Schoenberg was Jewish; when the Nazis came to power, he was forced to leave; came to America

  • Taught at UCLA until his death

Chapter 8


Schoenberg’s Music


  • Starting 1908, wrote music with no key center

The Twelve-Tone System

  • Gives equal importance to all twelve pitches in octave
  • Pitches arranged in a sequence or row (tone row)
  • No pitch occurs more than once in the twelve-note row in order to equalize emphasis of pitches

Chapter 8

chapter 10 anton webern
Chapter 10: Anton Webern

Born in Vienna, 1883-1945

Schoenberg’s other famous student

His music was ridiculed during his lifetime

Shy family man, devoted Christian

  • Shot by US soldier by mistake near end of WWII

Chapter 10


Webern’s Music

Expanded Schoenberg’s idea of tone color being part of melody

  • His melodies are frequently made up of several two-to-three-note fragments that add up to a complete whole
  • Tone color replaces “tunes” in his music

His music is almost always very short

Chapter 10


Five Pieces for Orchestra (1911-1913)

Third Piece

Anton Webern

Listening Outline: p. 333

Brief Set, CD 4:28

Listen for: Lack of traditional melody

Tone color washes over the listener

Dynamics never get above pp

Chapter 10

chapter 16 musical styles since 1945
Chapter 16: Musical Styles since 1945

Many societal changes since WWII

  • Instant communication has altered the world
  • Constant demand for novelty

Chapter 16


Characteristics of Music Since 1945

Increased use of the twelve-tone system

Serialism—twelve-tone techniques extended

Chance music that includes the random

Minimalist music with tonality, pulse, repetition

Deliberate quotations of earlier music in work

Chapter 16


Characteristics of Music Since 1945

Return to tonality by some composers

Electronic music

“Liberation of sound”—use of noiselike sounds

Mixed media

New concepts of rhythm and form

Chapter 16


Musical Quotation

Since mid-1960s

Represents conscious break with serialism

Improves communication with audience

  • Quoted material conveys symbolic meaning

Frequently juxtaposes quoted material with others, creating an Ives-esque sound

Return to Tonality

Parallels quotation in implying other styles

Chapter 16


Concerto Grosso 1985

(To Handel’s Sonata in D Major for Violin and Continuo, First Movement)

Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (b. 1939)

Listening Outline: p. 368

Brief Set, CD 4:51

Quotation music, each of its five movements uses material from first movement of the Handel piece

Listen for: Use of quoted material

Continuo part, as in baroque period

Terraced dynamics to imply baroque

Chapter 17