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Understanding ‘Learning’ in Pakistan: Building a Comprehensive Picture of School Functioning in Pakistan. Monazza Aslam , Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), Dept. Of Economics, University of Oxford, UK and Idara - Taleem -o- Aagahi , Lahore. Education is Key.
MonazzaAslam, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), Dept. Of Economics, University of Oxford, UK and Idara-Taleem-o-Aagahi, Lahore.
Hanushek and WoBmann (2007) show using PISA surveys that disparities in secondary education between developing countries and OECD countries are even larger when one considers not only access but also learning achievements.
But research on most aspects is limited.
PREVIOUS RESEARCH IN PAKISTAN SHOWS:
1. We know that students in private schools may achieve more and that girls may be worse off in terms of access to private schools;
2. We also know potentially how student A may be targeted through improving weak teaching;
3. ASER (2008) – builds a picture of basic learning and tells us that 65% 5-16 year olds in 11 districts in Pakistan cannot read standard 2 story level text and more than 70 % cannot do two digit division (again standard 2 curriculum).
4. We also know that there are striking gender inequalities in occupational choice and in earnings;
5. Finally, we also know that the labour market rewards women’s ‘skills’ substantially.
If today's children are to become tomorrows earning adults, we need to know how they are learning today to ensure they are able to achieve their full potential tomorrow.
Hence girls lose out in terms of the quantity and quality of education acquired! Achievement data helps us identify a major inequality.
Aik = α + βXik + δSk + μi + ηk (1)
ASER is a citizens-led initiative conducted in a campaign mode. This means that ASER is not conducted by any single organization. Instead, ASER is done in collaboration with a variety of civil society organizations, universities, research institutions government organizations and citizens’ groups. Collaborators voluntary supporters, teachers and students devote their time and resources to conduct ASER in their region/districts.
Pratham and ASER India, provide technical support at various stages of the survey to the ASER Pakistan.
Coverage : In all five provinces i.e. in Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab, PakhtonKhawa, GilgitBaltistan, FATA and AJK.
Only rural areas will be sampled.
Phase I : Year I 2010 – 30 districts across Pakistan
Phase II: Year II 2011 – 70 districts across Pakistan
Phase III : Years III, IV , V all districts across Pakistan (138 districts)
Sample: 600 households per district. Two-stage sample, stratified in the first stage. Obtained by selecting 30 villages per district & 20 households per village.
Villages will be selected randomly using the village directory of the latest Census. The Probability Proportional to Size Sampling (PPS) technique will be adopted as an appropriate one when the sampling units are of different sizes.
Focus on nuances between public and private . In each village profile of 1 govt. and 1 private school will be collected .
ASER Pakistan 2008 only completed in 11 districts of 2 provinces: Punjab, Sindh and the Islamabad Capital Territory.
Unfortunately, ASER Pakistan 2008 could not be undertaken in Baluchistan and NWFP due to the Oct. 2008 earthquake/floods & rapidly deteriorating law and order situation /conflict ..local collaborators got engaged in multiple emergency responses
In ASER Pakistan 2008 , 16737 children and 6520 households were surveyed in the rural areas during the survey in 11 districts
More girls are out of school – no surprise here;
Enrolment is the very first rung of the access ladder – we stumble on the very first one.
Apparently a larger proportion of girls enrolled in private schools (46% versus 41% boys).
This finding is NOT different from what the PIHS data tells you when you do not condition on household observables.
If we were to condition on observables etc., I suspect ASER 2008 finding would be identical to Aslam (2009) – girls lose out in the quality of schooling available to them!
Of the 16, 737 children tested, only about 30% are able to read a story with fluency in Urdu or local language.
Of the more than 16,000 children tested, only about a quarter can do double digit division.
We come back full circle:
(ii) teacher competence to teach material in the primary texts (teacher’s knowledge, ability to explain and ability to spot the mistakes that children make); and