CHAPTER 7. EARLY POLYPHONY. ORGANUM IN MUSIC THEORY SOURCES. Western art music is marked by one important characteristic: polyphony—not melody, not rhythm but polyphony (the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent musical lines). Musica enchiriadis ( Music Handbook ; c890s).
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De Musica (On Music; c1100) by John of St. Gall: situates the vox principalis (chant) as the lower voice and the vox organalis (newly added voice) above. The chant was now, and would remain, in the lowest voice.
An anonymous example of two-voice
Aquitanian polyphony Viderunt omnes
Showing the three-voice organum Congaudeant catholici by Master Albertus of Paris.
The Codex Calixtinus is the first manuscript to ascribe composers’ names to particular pieces.
A transcription of Master Albertus’ Congaudeant catholoci, the first example of three-voice music to survive in a practical source.