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The Rise of Nationalism. Q What were the various stages in the rise of nationalist movements in Asia and the Middle East, and what challenges did they face?. Wilson’s 14 Points & Paris Peace Conference .

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the rise of nationalism
The Rise of Nationalism
  • Q What were the various stages in the rise of nationalist movements in Asia and the Middle East, and what challenges did they face?
wilson s 14 points paris peace conference
Wilson’s 14 Points & Paris Peace Conference
  • Colonies around the world encouraged by Wilson’s 14 points and “self-determination” of nations
  • Great Britain & France obtained right to rule as mandates of the League of Nations
    • former German Territories in Africa
    • Former Ottoman Turkish lands in the Middle East
de colonization post wwi
De-colonization Post WWI
  • Liberation Movement begin to rise throughout the world post WWI.
  • Agitate for : Political, social, and economic change to improve circumstances for working people
    • Addresses poverty created by colonization
    • Challenges absolute governments & authority(tzar, sultan, etc)
intellectual challenges to western cultural imperialism
Intellectual Challenges to Western Cultural Imperialism
  • Sociologist, Lester Frank Ward
    • Dynamic Sociology (1883)
      • Criticized social Darwinism
      • Argued the conservative social scientists responsible for Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer & William Graham Sumner wrongly applied evolutionary theory to human affairs
      • Confused organic evolution with social evolution
intellectual challenges
Intellectual Challenges
  • Edward Wilmot BlydenBlack Spokesman
    • 1832 – 1912
    • West Indian Born, Liberian Statesman & ideologue
  • His life’s work to dispel superiority and inferiority myths
  • To include Africa in Geopolitics
    • Black Nationalism & pan-Africanism
    • The African Personality
    • Place of Islam and Arabic in Africa
  • Pan-Africanism
  • Political force at the turn of the century 19th C
    • A learned emotional loyalty
    • perceive common bonds
      • Provides members a sense of membership & belonging
  • Nurtured by common bonds: language, religion, social & institutional traditions, territory, history
factors in the rise of modern nationalism
Factors in the Rise of Modern nationalism
  • New urban middle class of westernized intellectuals (Merchants, clerk, students, professionals educated in western schools)
    • Resented foreigners and their arrogant contempt for colonial peoples
    • Dismayed between the ideals of western society and the reality . Disparity between ideal and reality, theory and practice
  • Equality in economic opportunity non-existent
    • Segregated societies hat privileged Europeans over the colonial peoples
anti colonialism
  • Educated natives organized political parties
    • Sought reforms
    • Sought an end of foreign rule
    • Sought a restoration of independence
  • Middle class indigenous urban elite source of anti-colonial sentiment

Gandhi & Indian Nationalism

  • High caste, English trained Hindu
    • Hoped to speak for all Indians


  • Young Hindu lawyer returned from south Africa to become active in the INC, 1915
  • Transformed the movement and galvanized the struggle for independence and identity
    • Accepted need for reforms to end traditional abuses like child marriage and sati
    • Called for an Indian share in the governing process more spending on economic development and less on military campaigns

British Indian


the wars


the new party
The New Party
  • British responded with a few concessions
  • Disillusioned members split off and formed the New Party
    • called for use of terrorism and violence to achieve national independence
  • The INC also had a hard time reconciling religious differences
    • Reflected Hindu concerns
      • A separate Muslim League was created to represent the interests of the millions of Muslims in Indian society

Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi , and Muhammad Ali Jinnah confer before the partition of India into Hindu and Muslim states.


  • “ Hold fast to” the truth”
    • A policy of Non violent resistance
      • Sought to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to India
      • Goal to convert the British to his views
      • Goal to strengthen the unity and self respect of his compatriots
      • Concerned about the untouchables, who he called the harijans or “children of god”
        • Use of civil disobedience against British suppression of dissent
civil disobedience
Civil Disobedience
  • Ghandi“mahatma” or “great soul” organized mass protests to achieve his aims
    • 1919 the British violently responded to the protests
    • Killed 100s of unarmed protesters in the square in the city of Amristar in NW India
      • Ghandi imprisoned for several years
government of indian act
Government of Indian Act
  • British passed the Government of India Act, 1921: Transformed the advisory legislative council into a bicameral parliament, 2/3rds of whose members would be elected
    • 5 million Indians were enfranchised
      • (no longer enough for many INC members who wanted full independence)
    • British also increased the salt tax,
      • prohibited Indian people from manufacturing or harvesting their own salt
march to the sea 1930
March to the Sea, 1930
  • Ghandi led a nonviolent movement for Indian independence from British Rule with 78 followers.
    • Destination: Dandi,240 miles away.
march to the sea 19301
March to the Sea, 1930
  • “civil disobedience is the inherent right of a citizen. He dare not give it up without ceasing to be a man.”
  • 1000’s joined, each picked up a pinch of salt as an act of disobedience in protest of the British monopoly on salt.
women s rights
Women’s Rights
  • Indian women active in the movement
    • First 2 organizations to promote women’s rights had been established in the early years of the century
      • Became involved to bring about reforms
    • Women accounted for about 20,0000, or 10% of the people arrested and jailed for demonstrating during the interwar period
women s rights1
Women’s Rights
  • Promoted women’s education,
  • introduction of birth control,
  • abolition of child marriage,
  • universal suffrage
  • 1929 the Sarda Act raised the minimum age of marriage to 14
jawaharlal nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Educated in the law in Great Britian, Brahmin by birth
      • He personified the new anglo-indian politician: secular, rational, upper class intellectual
  • Movement embarked on a second path from Ghandi’s movement
    • Religious and secular/Native and western
      • strengthened the movement , united 2 primary impulses behind the desire for independence
        • Elite nationalism and the primal force of Indian traditionalism
  • 1940, the Muslim League called for the creation of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan
  • British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma insturmental
  • (“land of the pure”)
  • 1947
partition aftermath
Partition aftermath
  • Violent process
    • 12.5 million displaced or homeless
      • 14.5 million moved to Pakistan
      • 7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved to india
      • 7 million others moved to other regions
      • 1 million dead
      • 83,000 women abducted during riots and killings
  • Legacy of religious division and intolerance
ottoman empire turkish nationalism
Ottoman Empire & Turkish Nationalism
  • Multi-cultural make-up of the Ottoman empire.
  • All subjected to massacres ordered by the “Red Sultan” in response to protests against his tyranny
    • Young Turks led the protests, promised reform and peace for all
first waves of liberation
First Waves of Liberation
  • Young Turks (1908 – 1918)
    • Nationalist Reform Party
    • Begun by intelligentsia and military cadets
  • Advocated Pan-Turkism & disliked multi-culturalism
armenian genocide
Armenian Genocide
  • Allied with Germany during WWI against Britain
    • Ethnic cleansing
    • 1.5 Million Armenians tortured, killed
allied triumph over the ottoman
Allied Triumph over the Ottoman
  • British declared an official protectorate over Egypt
  • 1916 local governor of Mecca, encouraged by British, declared Arabia independent from Ottoman rule
  • British troops seized Palestine
    • 0ct 1918 with 300,000 casualties from the war, negotiated an armistice with the allied powers

Mustafa Kemal,

president of the new republic,


‘‘Father Turk’’


mustafa kemal and the modernization of turkey
Mustafa Kemal and the Modernization of Turkey
  • Kemal convoked a National congress
  • Called for an elected government
  • Goal to preserve remainder of territories of old Empire to create the Republic of Turkey
  • Republic established in 1923
republic of turkey
Republic of Turkey
  • Trappings of a democratic system were put into place
    • suppressed critics of his rule
  • Turkish nationalism emphasized
  • Popular education was emphasized
  • Old aristocratic titles abolished
    • He attempted to break the power of Islamic clerics
    • Transform turkey into a secular state
    • Caliphate was abolished in 1924
    • The Shari’a was replaced with the Swiss law code revised
modernized the economy
Modernized the Economy
  • established light industrial sector
  • Institute a 5 year plan on the soviet model to provide for state direction over the economy
  • Modernization of agricultural sector: training institutions and model farms
  • State was a from of state capitalism,
women s reforms in turkey
Women’s Reforms in Turkey
  • women discouraged from wearing the veil
  • right to vote
  • legally guaranteed equal rights with en in all aspects of marriage and inheritance in 1934
  • Education and the professions open to both sexes
  • Women entered politics
  • Freedom of religion and conversion
persia qajar dynasty 1794 1925
Persia – Qajar Dynasty (1794-1925)
  • Growing western influence – Russia & Great Britain
    • Discovery of oil reserves in 1908
    • Division of spheres of influence
  • Internal divisions
  • Led to growth of indigenous Persian Nationalist Movement
    • By 1906 Shah forced to grant a constitution based on a western model
pahlavi dynasty 1925
Pahlavi Dynasty, 1925
  • Established by Reza Khan – new Shah
  • Attempted to establish a Republic
  • Reforms:
    • Strengthened central government
    • Modernized the civilian & military bureaucracy
    • Modern economic infrastructure
    • Western educational model
    • Forbade veiling in public
      • Name of nation changed to Iran, 1935
      • Occupied by Soviet & British troops during WWII

Division of Iran by Soviet Union and Britain

during WWII and occupation


  • Established after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire
    • Kurdish, Sunni and Shi’ite population
  • Occupied by British in WWI to protect oil reserved from German Expansion
    • Placed under British mandate in 1920
    • Ruled through minority Shi’ite population
    • Repressed anti-western resistance by 1921
    • More Oil discovered in Kirkuk in 1927
    • Britain supported Syrian rule of King Faisal & maintained heavy influence
saudi arabia
Saudi Arabia
  • 1920s, Ibn Saud of the Wahhabi Movement united Arab tribes to drive out Ottoman Rule
  • Established the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1932
  • Traditionally poor, Standard Oil struck oil in 1938 at Dhahran on the Gulf.
    • Arabian-American oil or ARAMCO established
  • British Mandate following WWI
  • Zionist Movement, Theodor Herzl est. 1897
  • Jewish immigration accepted in Palestine prior to and during WWI
    • 85,000 or 10% of the population were Jewish by the War
    • Majority Muslim Arabs
    • Balfour Declaration of 1917 declared Palestine a national home for Jews

European Jewish Refugees continued

to emigrate after World War I


division of palestine creation of jordan
Division of Palestine & Creation of Jordan
  • Post WWI Britain created a separate state or Emirate of Trans-Jordan out of the eastern portion of Palestine
  • WWII, became the independent kingdom of Jordan
    • Arab-Palestine conflict today & the Apartheid state that exists is a product of these British interventions
revolution in egypt
Revolution in Egypt
  • Britain faced a fully developed nationalist movement
  • Egyptians led by SaadZaglhlulformed a delegation or Wafd
    • Asked for independence after the war
    • Egyptian demands were thwarted by British Determination to control the Suez Canal 1919
      • Full scale revolution erupted
wafd party
Wafd Party
  • Leaders exiled
  • Wafd party became chief political & nationalist organization 1919-1952
  • Revolts persisted/power struggle
    • Conflict between
      • British
      • King Fu’ad & his successor King Faruk
      • The Wafd
egyptian independence
Egyptian “Independence”
  • Britain wanted to maintain presence
  • & to undercut the nationalist movement
  • Unilaterally proclaimed Egyptian independence under the constitutional monarchy of King Fu’ad 1922
    • British continued to hold the Canal
    • Based soldiers in Egyptian territory
    • Exercised widespread influence over Egyptian political life
  • Nationalist demands for complete independence failed
  • Monarchy & Wafd became corrupt
  • Lost support from Egyptian population
    • Result was that the people turned to more radical groups from the “left” and the “right” finally the army to realize their nationalist aspirations
west african
West African
  • African colonies had given their loyal support to Britain in the war effort
  • 1,000’s had died
  • Efforts not recognized or rewarded socially, politically or economically
  • Disgruntled solders joined nationalist efforts
colonial division s
Colonial Division’s
  • Colonial state often tried to manipulate people through their feelings of ethnic identity
    • Language, religion, race, class, territory, economic or political advantage
      • French used language to divide
        • Fearing Arabic unity gave special privilege to Berber traditional law over Muslim Sharia
        • Backfired and rallied Muslims to anti-colonial movement
      • British/Afrikaner South Africa
        • Since 1948 Afrikaners attempted to create Homelands or later Bantustans to reinforce ethnic feelings of Xhosa or Zulu and reduce unity of Africans
interwar resistance in africa
Interwar Resistance in Africa
  • Sources of Solidarity
    • Desire for indepence
      • Self –governmnet
      • End of economic exploitation by foriegners
    • Common Religion
      • Islam (Egypt, Algeria, French Sudan)
      • Christianity (Nyasaland (today’s Malawi)
    • Gender
      • 1925 – 1930 Aba Women’s War in S.E. Nigeria
    • Economic interest
      • Consumers united against high prices and low quality
      • Trade unions organized for better wages
  • British settlement of Highlands
    • Land & privilege
  • Indian immigration encouraged
    • Merchant class
  • Kikuyu
    • Dispossession & Taxes
  • Prime Example of the contradictions and failures of British Imperial policies
  • Racial & class divisions among the diverse population led to ongoing conflict
    • Indians from the subcontinent had been encouraged by the British to settle in large numbers in Uganda & Kenya
    • Became dominant merchants
    • Provided superior social & economic status within the British Imperial system
  • 1920’s African Nationalists responded
    • Formed several groups
      • Kikuyu Central Association (1924)
        • British Repression
        • 1928 repression created more support
  • Leader Jomo Kenyatta
      • Returned to lead Mau Mau Rebellion, (1953)
        • emerged to enforce unity, secrecy and discipline
        • Kikuyu feelings of ethnicity created by the colonial experience reinforced by new intercommunication in the Urban setting
revolts in north africa
Revolts in North Africa
  • Nationalist Political movements
    • Morocco
      • Rif Rebellion led by Krim Brothers
      • Brutally crushed by French and Spanish forces
    • Algeria
    • Libya
      • Italians bombed rebellion
    • Tunisia
      • French crushed movements in early 1900s
national congress of west africa
National Congress of West Africa
  • British Held Ghana (God Coast)
    • CaselyHayford led other educated Africans from 4 British colonies in demand for greater autonomy
    • Met in West Africa, Accra, capital of Gold Coast, 1920
      • Discussed implementation of reforms that would lead to independence
      • Would meet over the next decade to agitate for independence
  • Largest of British colonies
    • Women merchants led demonstrations & riots
    • 1919, 1928 in opposition to British Domination
    • Leadership of Herbert Macaulay, Lagos, the capital
    • Center of well-organized & effective nationalist opposition
nigerian national democratic party
Nigerian National Democratic Party
  • 1923 Mcaulay organized the NNDP
    • Agitated for Nigerian participation within the British political system
  • Blaise Diagne, customs official
  • First African to be elected to the French Chamber of Deputies
  • Pushed for National causes in French held Senegal
belgian congo
Belgian Congo
  • Nationalist Movement
    • Belgians established a local school system
      • Few graduates went on to western universities
    • Continued to pursue a very paternalistic policy in the Congo
    • Repressive tactics by Belgians increased the number of nationalist sympathizers
      • Authoritarian system repressed nationalistic drive
british east africa
British East Africa
  • Uganda
    • British authorities worked through local leaders who exercised local government duties
    • Nationalist demonstrations were rare
east africa
East Africa
  • Portuguese colonies
    • Angola
    • Mozambique
      • Prazos – feudal Estates
      • Held by small white majority
      • Dominated agricultural and Business activities
      • Major force behind authoritarian Portuguese politics
racial caste apartheid
Racial Caste & Apartheid
  • Mozambique
  • Angola
  • Rhodesia
    • British held economic and political power
    • Black majority in subordinate position
    • Deprived of political participation
    • Poverty & economic independence prevented them from forming effective nationalist organizations
south african nationalist versus white settler rule
South African: Nationalist Versus White Settler Rule
  • British won war with Boers during WWI
  • Government incorporated Boer territory and granted them dominion status with the commonwealth
    • Position implied an equal partnership with the mother country
    • Program of economic rehabilitation & assimilation of the Boers
    • Afrikaner culture emerged
      • South African of Dutch Origin Nationalism
  • Formed political parties
    • Heroes of Boer War
    • Moved to maintain their superior political & economic status through the United Party (1934)
      • Formed by Generals Jan Christian Smuts
      • James Hertzog
        • By 1934 segregationist policies that formed the foundation for Apartheid had become apparent
south africa
South Africa
  • Rich agricultural land
  • Minerals
  • Water
    • Union of South Africa
    • Dominated by Boers
    • Prospered
    • Bantu Peoples
      • 80% of the population
      • Tenant farmers, manual laborers, workers in mines & factories
      • disenfranchised
south african native national congress
South African Native National Congress
  • Educated black South Africans
    • Formed the SANNC in 1912
    • Opposed to removal of native farmers from their ancestral lands
    • Sought to redress grievances
    • Leadership was conservative & wanted to negotiate with white minority
africa national congress of sa
Africa National Congress of SA
  • 1923 changed its name & became a major nationalist organization for black participation and self determination
    • Boers continued a policy of divide and rule
    • Encouraged intertribal differences
pan africanism
  • African leaders, alienated by European economic, political and cultural domination called for unity of all Africans
  • Henry Sylvester-Williams called the first Pan-African Conference in London 1900
  • Later held in Latin America & United States
post war era
Post War Era
  • British & French Refusals to grant autonomy fueled nationalist upheavals in Africa & middle east
  • Imperial governments determined to control middle eastern oil fields, strategic Suez Canal & the Persian Gulf
rise of radicalism
Rise of Radicalism
  • When Political parties & nationalist parties failed to make gains
  • Many turned to military solution to achieve national liberation