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The Rise of Nationalism

The Rise of Nationalism. Q What were the various stages in the rise of nationalist movements in Asia and the Middle East, and what challenges did they face?. Wilson’s 14 Points & Paris Peace Conference.

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The Rise of Nationalism

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  1. The Rise of Nationalism • Q What were the various stages in the rise of nationalist movements in Asia and the Middle East, and what challenges did they face?

  2. Wilson’s 14 Points & Paris Peace Conference • Colonies around the world encouraged by Wilson’s 14 points and “self-determination” of nations • Great Britain & France obtained right to rule as mandates of the League of Nations • former German Territories in Africa • Former Ottoman Turkish lands in the Middle East

  3. De-colonization Post WWI • Liberation Movement begin to rise throughout the world post WWI. • Agitate for : Political, social, and economic change to improve circumstances for working people • Addresses poverty created by colonization • Challenges absolute governments & authority(tzar, sultan, etc)

  4. Intellectual Challenges to Western Cultural Imperialism • Sociologist, Lester Frank Ward • Dynamic Sociology (1883) • Criticized social Darwinism • Argued the conservative social scientists responsible for Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer & William Graham Sumner wrongly applied evolutionary theory to human affairs • Confused organic evolution with social evolution

  5. Intellectual Challenges • Edward Wilmot BlydenBlack Spokesman • 1832 – 1912 • West Indian Born, Liberian Statesman & ideologue • His life’s work to dispel superiority and inferiority myths • To include Africa in Geopolitics • Black Nationalism & pan-Africanism • The African Personality • Place of Islam and Arabic in Africa • Pan-Africanism

  6. Nationalism • Political force at the turn of the century 19th C • A learned emotional loyalty • perceive common bonds • Provides members a sense of membership & belonging • Nurtured by common bonds: language, religion, social & institutional traditions, territory, history

  7. Factors in the Rise of Modern nationalism • New urban middle class of westernized intellectuals (Merchants, clerk, students, professionals educated in western schools) • Resented foreigners and their arrogant contempt for colonial peoples • Dismayed between the ideals of western society and the reality . Disparity between ideal and reality, theory and practice • Equality in economic opportunity non-existent • Segregated societies hat privileged Europeans over the colonial peoples

  8. Anti-colonialism • Educated natives organized political parties • Sought reforms • Sought an end of foreign rule • Sought a restoration of independence • Middle class indigenous urban elite source of anti-colonial sentiment

  9. Gandhi & Indian Nationalism • High caste, English trained Hindu • Hoped to speak for all Indians p696

  10. Gandhi • Young Hindu lawyer returned from south Africa to become active in the INC, 1915 • Transformed the movement and galvanized the struggle for independence and identity • Accepted need for reforms to end traditional abuses like child marriage and sati • Called for an Indian share in the governing process more spending on economic development and less on military campaigns

  11. British Indian Between the wars p699

  12. The New Party • British responded with a few concessions • Disillusioned members split off and formed the New Party • called for use of terrorism and violence to achieve national independence • The INC also had a hard time reconciling religious differences • Reflected Hindu concerns • A separate Muslim League was created to represent the interests of the millions of Muslims in Indian society

  13. Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi , and Muhammad Ali Jinnah confer before the partition of India into Hindu and Muslim states. p700

  14. Satyagraha • “ Hold fast to” the truth” • A policy of Non violent resistance • Sought to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to India • Goal to convert the British to his views • Goal to strengthen the unity and self respect of his compatriots • Concerned about the untouchables, who he called the harijans or “children of god” • Use of civil disobedience against British suppression of dissent

  15. Civil Disobedience • Ghandi“mahatma” or “great soul” organized mass protests to achieve his aims • 1919 the British violently responded to the protests • Killed 100s of unarmed protesters in the square in the city of Amristar in NW India • Ghandi imprisoned for several years

  16. Government of Indian Act • British passed the Government of India Act, 1921: Transformed the advisory legislative council into a bicameral parliament, 2/3rds of whose members would be elected • 5 million Indians were enfranchised • (no longer enough for many INC members who wanted full independence) • British also increased the salt tax, • prohibited Indian people from manufacturing or harvesting their own salt

  17. March to the Sea, 1930 • Ghandi led a nonviolent movement for Indian independence from British Rule with 78 followers. • Destination: Dandi,240 miles away.

  18. March to the Sea, 1930 • “civil disobedience is the inherent right of a citizen. He dare not give it up without ceasing to be a man.” • 1000’s joined, each picked up a pinch of salt as an act of disobedience in protest of the British monopoly on salt.

  19. Women’s Rights • Indian women active in the movement • First 2 organizations to promote women’s rights had been established in the early years of the century • Became involved to bring about reforms • Women accounted for about 20,0000, or 10% of the people arrested and jailed for demonstrating during the interwar period

  20. Women’s Rights • Promoted women’s education, • introduction of birth control, • abolition of child marriage, • universal suffrage • 1929 the Sarda Act raised the minimum age of marriage to 14

  21. p710

  22. Jawaharlal Nehru • Educated in the law in Great Britian, Brahmin by birth • He personified the new anglo-indian politician: secular, rational, upper class intellectual • Movement embarked on a second path from Ghandi’s movement • Religious and secular/Native and western • strengthened the movement , united 2 primary impulses behind the desire for independence • Elite nationalism and the primal force of Indian traditionalism

  23. Pakistan • 1940, the Muslim League called for the creation of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan • British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma insturmental • (“land of the pure”) • 1947

  24. Partition aftermath • Violent process • 12.5 million displaced or homeless • 14.5 million moved to Pakistan • 7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved to india • 7 million others moved to other regions • 1 million dead • 83,000 women abducted during riots and killings • Legacy of religious division and intolerance

  25. Ottoman Empire & Turkish Nationalism • Multi-cultural make-up of the Ottoman empire. • All subjected to massacres ordered by the “Red Sultan” in response to protests against his tyranny • Young Turks led the protests, promised reform and peace for all

  26. First Waves of Liberation • Young Turks (1908 – 1918) • Nationalist Reform Party • Begun by intelligentsia and military cadets • Advocated Pan-Turkism & disliked multi-culturalism

  27. Armenian Genocide • Allied with Germany during WWI against Britain • Ethnic cleansing • 1.5 Million Armenians tortured, killed

  28. Allied Triumph over the Ottoman • British declared an official protectorate over Egypt • 1916 local governor of Mecca, encouraged by British, declared Arabia independent from Ottoman rule • British troops seized Palestine • 0ct 1918 with 300,000 casualties from the war, negotiated an armistice with the allied powers

  29. Mustafa Kemal, president of the new republic, Ataturk ‘‘Father Turk’’ p702

  30. Mustafa Kemal and the Modernization of Turkey • Kemal convoked a National congress • Called for an elected government • Goal to preserve remainder of territories of old Empire to create the Republic of Turkey • Republic established in 1923

  31. Republic of Turkey • Trappings of a democratic system were put into place • suppressed critics of his rule • Turkish nationalism emphasized • Popular education was emphasized • Old aristocratic titles abolished • He attempted to break the power of Islamic clerics • Transform turkey into a secular state • Caliphate was abolished in 1924 • The Shari’a was replaced with the Swiss law code revised

  32. Modernized the Economy • established light industrial sector • Institute a 5 year plan on the soviet model to provide for state direction over the economy • Modernization of agricultural sector: training institutions and model farms • State was a from of state capitalism,

  33. Women’s Reforms in Turkey • women discouraged from wearing the veil • right to vote • legally guaranteed equal rights with en in all aspects of marriage and inheritance in 1934 • Education and the professions open to both sexes • Women entered politics • Freedom of religion and conversion

  34. Persia – Qajar Dynasty (1794-1925) • Growing western influence – Russia & Great Britain • Discovery of oil reserves in 1908 • Division of spheres of influence • Internal divisions • Led to growth of indigenous Persian Nationalist Movement • By 1906 Shah forced to grant a constitution based on a western model

  35. Pahlavi Dynasty, 1925 • Established by Reza Khan – new Shah • Attempted to establish a Republic • Reforms: • Strengthened central government • Modernized the civilian & military bureaucracy • Modern economic infrastructure • Western educational model • Forbade veiling in public • Name of nation changed to Iran, 1935 • Occupied by Soviet & British troops during WWII

  36. Division of Iran by Soviet Union and Britain during WWII and occupation p702

  37. Iraq • Established after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire • Kurdish, Sunni and Shi’ite population • Occupied by British in WWI to protect oil reserved from German Expansion • Placed under British mandate in 1920 • Ruled through minority Shi’ite population • Repressed anti-western resistance by 1921 • More Oil discovered in Kirkuk in 1927 • Britain supported Syrian rule of King Faisal & maintained heavy influence

  38. Saudi Arabia • 1920s, Ibn Saud of the Wahhabi Movement united Arab tribes to drive out Ottoman Rule • Established the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1932 • Traditionally poor, Standard Oil struck oil in 1938 at Dhahran on the Gulf. • Arabian-American oil or ARAMCO established

  39. p704

  40. Palestine • British Mandate following WWI • Zionist Movement, Theodor Herzl est. 1897 • Jewish immigration accepted in Palestine prior to and during WWI • 85,000 or 10% of the population were Jewish by the War • Majority Muslim Arabs • Balfour Declaration of 1917 declared Palestine a national home for Jews

  41. European Jewish Refugees continued to emigrate after World War I p705

  42. Division of Palestine & Creation of Jordan • Post WWI Britain created a separate state or Emirate of Trans-Jordan out of the eastern portion of Palestine • WWII, became the independent kingdom of Jordan • Arab-Palestine conflict today & the Apartheid state that exists is a product of these British interventions

  43. p705

  44. Revolution in Egypt • Britain faced a fully developed nationalist movement • Egyptians led by SaadZaglhlulformed a delegation or Wafd • Asked for independence after the war • Egyptian demands were thwarted by British Determination to control the Suez Canal 1919 • Full scale revolution erupted

  45. Wafd Party • Leaders exiled • Wafd party became chief political & nationalist organization 1919-1952 • Revolts persisted/power struggle • Conflict between • British • King Fu’ad & his successor King Faruk • The Wafd

  46. Egyptian “Independence” • Britain wanted to maintain presence • & to undercut the nationalist movement • Unilaterally proclaimed Egyptian independence under the constitutional monarchy of King Fu’ad 1922 • British continued to hold the Canal • Based soldiers in Egyptian territory • Exercised widespread influence over Egyptian political life

  47. Egypt • Nationalist demands for complete independence failed • Monarchy & Wafd became corrupt • Lost support from Egyptian population • Result was that the people turned to more radical groups from the “left” and the “right” finally the army to realize their nationalist aspirations

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