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THE YUGOSLAV WARS
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THE YUGOSLAV WARS

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  1. THE YUGOSLAV WARS Dr. Zoltán GrossmanThe Evergreen State College, Olympia, Wash. Slovenia Croatia Bosnia Serbia Monte- negro Kosovo Macedonia

  2. Social and Territorial Definitions of Place Bosnian Flag (Bosniak/ Muslim) • SOCIAL Defines place as belonging to one ethnic or racial group (“Law of the Blood”) • TERRITORIAL Defines place geographically as home for all who live there (“Law of the Soil”) “Ethnic cleansing” in early ‘90s to match ethnic, state boundaries Bosnia multiethnic state flag

  3. State Identity Ethnic Identity Slovenian Croatian Bosnian Serbian Montenegrin Kosovan Macedonian Slovene Croat Bosniak (Muslim) Serb Montenegrin Kosovar (Albanian) Macedonian-Slav or Macedonian-Albanian Croatian Serbs, Bosnian Serbs, Kosovan Serbs Bosnian Croats, Serbian Croats, etc. Also: Serbian Hungarians (Voivodina), Kosovan Roma, Serbian and Montenegrin Muslims (Sanjak)

  4. Ottoman Empire

  5. Austro-Hungarian Empire, Serbia, Montenegro

  6. Yugoslavia I

  7. Yugoslavia I: Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Serbs, Croats, Slovenes united kingdom after WWI; Named “Yugoslavia” (Land of South Slavs), 1932

  8. Fascist Europe Greater Romania Greater Hungary Greater Croatia Greater Albania Kosovo Jasenovac, Croatia

  9. World War II fighters USTASE (Croat Nazis) CHETNIKS (Serb nationalists/fascists) PARTISANS (multiethnic Communists)

  10. Yugoslavia II: Social Federated Republic of Yugoslavia Communist Josip Broz Tito revived Yugoslavia in 1945. Croatian who promoted “brotherhood & unity”

  11. Croatia, Slovenia (Catholic) Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia (Orthodox) Bosnia (Muslim) Kosovo (Albanian province of Serbia) Six republics of Yugoslavia, 1945-1991

  12. Kosovo province of Serbia Tito puts Albanian majority in charge; Serbs have become minority but maintain historic claim

  13. Tito dies; replaced by weak rotating leadership. Economic crisis leads to (multiethnic) worker strikes. Republic leaders start to use nationalist messages, weaken Yugoslav identity Yugoslavia in 1980s

  14. Models of ethnic harmony, 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. By 1992, both cities were torn by ethnic uprisings, gang rule, and troops on the streets

  15. Theories of ethnic hatred It’s a toolused for political and economic power It’s always there; politics can keep a “lid” on it Communism collapses in Eastern Europe, 1989 Croatian and Serbian leaders stoke ethnic hatred after 1989

  16. Conflict among similar peoples (Serbs vs. Muslims vs. Croats) Same race, spoken language Different religion, script, “ethnic” group Intermarried, cooperated, 1950s-80s; at war 1990s Muslim and Serb refugees from Sarajevo, Bosnia

  17. Yugoslav ethnic groups before break-up Ethnic Serbs and Croats for irredentism Bosnians, Kosovars for secession Use of maps as weapons

  18. “Greater Serbia” Slobodan Milosevic appeals for ethnic Serb rights at 600th anniversary of Kosovo Polje battle, 1989 Backs ethnic territoriality in Croatia & Bosnia; also State territoriality in Kosovo, where Serbs are a minority

  19. Serbs and Montenegrins

  20. “Greater Croatia” Tudjman’s Bosnia partition plan Pres. Franjo Tudjman

  21. Croats

  22. “Greater Albania” Kosova Liberation Army (KLA)

  23. Albanians

  24. Former Yugoslavia Break-up Slovenia 1991 Croatia 1991 Bosnia 1992 Macedonia 1992 F.R. Yugoslavia 1992 (Serbia-Montenegro 2003; Montenegro ind. 2006) Kosovo 1999 (declared 2008)

  25. Secession of Slovenia, 1991 Alpine republic close to Austria; no Serb minority. Belgrade let go after short fight. Soldiers’ mothers stepped in.

  26. Secession of Croatia, 1991 Historic rival to Serbia Close to Germany. Used WWII symbols Large Serb minorities in Krajina and Eastern Slavonia.

  27. Yugoslav Army attacks eastern Croatia cities Much of Vukovar & Osijek in eastern Slavonia destroyed by Serbian shelling; Croatian scorched earth

  28. Secession of Bosnia, 1992 Muslims, Croats did not want to stay in Serb-led Yugoslavia Serbs, Croats shared historic hatred of Muslims Gangs form militias; looting, confiscations response to economic crisis

  29. Pre-war Bosnia Muslims 44% Serbs 31% Croats 17% Other 8% Three-way fight

  30. Western recognition of independence Led by united Germany; Premature without guarantee for minority (Serb) rights. Krajina and Bosnian Serbs see replay of WWII; fight for Greater Serbia

  31. Bosnian Serb snipers besiege Sarajevo, 1992-95

  32. Olympic Stadium in Sarajevo

  33. Mostar (Bridge) Ottoman bridge separated Croat and Muslim neighborhoods; Croatians blew it up in 1993.

  34. “Ethnic cleansing” • Forced removal of • an ethnic group Croats expelled from Vukovar (Croatia), 1992 To make area ethnically “purer,” increase percentage of majority in state Serbs expelled from Krajina (Croatia), 1995 Albanians expelled from Kosovo (Serbia), 1999

  35. Burn This House (Ridgeway/Mladenovic) Ultranationalism not “ancient hatreds” but modern method of divide and control Economic reasons for ethnic cleansing, mass looting, seizure of homes Minority rights within new states must be paramount

  36. Ethnic Cleansing of Bosnian Muslims

  37. Arkan’s Serbian Tigers (Zeljko Raznatovic)

  38. Srebrenica massacre, 1995 Serbs kill up to 7,000 Muslims Dutch UN troops powerless

  39. Croatian ethnic cleansing of Serbs from Krajina, 1995 U.S. aided Croatian offensive into Krajina (borderland) and western Bosnia to defeat Serbs, but civilians expelled

  40. Croatian ethnic cleansing of Serbs from Krajina, 1995

  41. Humanitarian War? Humanitarian Imperialism: Using Human Rights to Sell War Jean Bricmont asserts that "to call on an army to wage a war for human rights implies a naive belief of what armies are and do, as well as a magical belief in the myth of short, clean, 'surgical' wars."

  42. Humanitarian War? Humanitarian arguments against “barbarous customs” have always been used to rationalize European colonial expansion. His point of view "readily admits the barbarous nature of such customs, but considers that our interventions do much more harm than good, including in relation to making barbarism recede. And it points out that there is a considerable amount of 'barbarism' in our own 'civilized' countries, especially as they interact with others.”

  43. Post-war Bosnia Separate armies, currencies, etc. Two governments with contiguous territories Central gov’t? Refugee returns? Nationalist parties?

  44. Comparing 1991 and 1995 Dayton Accord Line

  45. Dayton Accord (de facto Partition), 1995 Federation of Bosnia-Hercegovina (Croat/Muslim) Republika Srpska (Serb Republic) U.S. rubberstamps ethnic cleansing? New republics now “purer” than 1991

  46. Western troops In Bosnia

  47. Kosovo fighting, 1998-99 Between Serbia and Kosova Liberation Army (KLA); 2,000+ killed

  48. NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, 1999

  49. NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, 1999 Resentment even from anti-Milosevic Serbs after civilian targets, opposition cities bombed

  50. Ethnic Cleansing of Kosovar Albanians, 1999