The Human Population Unit 1 Chapter 4
Population Growth • The population of the earth is nearing 7 billion people. • The US population is around 311 million people • http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html • http://www.poodwaddle.com/clocks/worldclock/
Continued • Growth Rates – The world population is growing rapidly, why? • The birth rate is higher and than death rate. • What factors do you think cause this? • Answer: Better diet and health care • What are some reasons why undeveloped nations have a higher birth rate than industrialized nation? • Agrarian Society vs. the professional woman • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/global-population-growth.html
Pre-Modern Chinese Family Traditional Industrialized Family What are some striking differences between these two styles of family and why?
Challenges • Due to the rapid population growth, world food production has increased to meet demands except for the African Continent. • However, populations are still facing food shortages due to this increase • http://blog.kiwitobes.com/?p=51
Negative Growth • Some countries experience a higher death rate than birth rate. • These countries often recruit workers from other countries to supplement the workforce.
Population Distribution • The earth’s people are not evenly distributed. • Most live near freshwater and in areas were the climate is temperate. • Population density measures the average number of people living on a square mile or km of land. • More people are moving to urban areas in search of better jobs. • Almost ½ the world’s population live near urban areas. • Also, people migrate from country to country to seek greater economic opportunities and political freedom.
6. Elements of Culture • 1. One unifying element of culture is language. • The world’s languages are divided into language families with large groups of languages having similar roots. • 2. Many cultures, their religious beliefs influence certain aspects of daily life. • Religious symbols and stories shape the arts and architectures. • Also, religious differences are the causes of many conflict amongst nations.
Continued • 3. Social Groups – Many cultures like the Indian Hindu’s have social, class, or caste systems • 4. Governments play the important role of maintaining order, provide defense, and supplying public services. • 5. Economies are very important, it determines how many cultures produce, obtain, use, and sell goods. • 6. Culture Region includes different countries that share certain characteristics, like the 5 elements previously mentioned.
Cultural Change • The Agricultural Revolution – 10,000 years ago, the climate grew warmer and nomads began to grow food. • Culture Hearths – First civilizations arose in present day Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, China, and Mexico. Known as hearths because their ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas.
Map Question Based on the map, what is the common theme of these early civilizations? Answer: They formed around bodies of water.
Continued • Specialization and Civilization – one farmers had food surpluses, people could give up farming and earn their living from other activities. Created an early economy. • Cultural Contacts- Through trade and travel civilizations made contact with one another causing ideas to spread.
Industrial and Information Revolutions • Between 1700-1800 people invented ways to mass produce goods. • During the Industrial Revolution, millions of people left their farms to work on factories, creating urbanization. • Created mass imperialism. • In the late 1900’s, computers could store huge amounts of information and send it all over the world creating the Information Revolution
How would the Industrial Revolution increase urbanization? Why were railroads important to the Industrial Revolution? Analyze how this invention affect cultural change?
Level of Government • Unitary System – the decision making process is given to a central or national government. • The national government can create lower local governments. • This does not mean this systems is a dictatorship. • Federal System – a System where the power of the government is divided amongst several levels of government. • The United States is an example of the federal system.
Types of Governments Autocracy Oligarchy Small group of people holds power. Authority comes from wealth, social status, or military power. Neither oligarchies or autocratic government allow the existence of opposition groups. • A Single individual is the absolute ruler. • Totalitarian leader like Hitler sought to control every aspect of a countries social and economic life. • Absolute Monarchy was considered to exercise supreme authority.
Discussion Question: Hitler vs. Mussolini Mussolini was the autocratic(Fascist) leader of Italy and Hitler was totalitarian Nazi leader of Germany. Through geography and especially cultural geography, why couldn’t Mussolini obtain the totalitarian leader title like Hitler?
Democracy • Leaders rule with the consent of the people. • Direct Democracy – people are directly involved in the decision making processes of the country. • Indirect Democracy – people elect leaders to represent them in government(Republic).
Economic Systems Traditional Economy Market Economy Individuals and private groups determine what they will and won’t produce. Free from government interference unless it is a mixed market or modified free market in which the government is involved to keep competition. Price is determined by supply and demand. • Economic activity is defined by roles and customs. Primitive in nature. • Examples would be the Aborigine, Canadian Inuits
Aboriginal People Any questions about the chart?
Economic Systems Command Communism and Socialism In Communism, the government controls all aspects of people’s lives. Intended to be a selfless society but has lots of corruption. Socialism is a mixed economy meaning it has Command and Market features. Aim to have an equal distribution of wealth and major decisions are made by the government. • The government or central agencies controls the production and distribution of goods. • Nazi Germany and USSR would be examples of a command economy.
Resources • As people use up more nonrenewable resources such as minerals and fossil fuels, scientist are finding new alternatives to energy. • Ex. Hydroelectric power and solar energy. • Natural resources are not evenly distributive over the world. • Go to page 93 in your book and define the types of economic activities.
World Trade Barriers to Trade Free Trade WTO – World Trade Organization promotes free trade internationally. International watchdog NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement, Free trade between which countries? US, Canada, Mexico • Countries trade because of the unequal distribution of natural resources • Governments manage trade to benefit their people • Embargo – Banning trade with another country. • Tariff – Tax on Imported goods • Quota – Limit on number of imported goods.
People and the Environment • Pollution – water pollution includes oil spills, chemical and industrial waste from factories, and fertilizers. Land pollution is from unsanitary dumpsites, radioactive waste, and chemical waste. • Air pollution – burning of fossil fuels creates air pollution. These gases will combine with precipitation forming acid rain.
What can you do? • People can help the environment by treating water, preserving wilderness areas, recycling, and using hydroelectric or solar power instead of burning fossil fuels.