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Personality. How would you describe your personality?. What is personality?. a pattern of characteristic thinking, feeling and behaving that distinguishes one person from another and is stable over time. Personality defined.

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Presentation Transcript
what is personality
What is personality?

a pattern of characteristic thinking, feeling and behaving that distinguishes one person from another and is stable over time

personality defined
Personality defined

scientific study of the whole person in terms of species-typical characteristics and individual differences

species-typical characteristics concern how individuals are alike

individual differences concerns how individuals are different

eight keys
Eight Keys
  • Unconscious
  • Sense of Identity
  • Biology
  • Conditioning and Learning
  • Cognitive
  • Traits and Skills
  • Spirituality
  • Interactions
three in conflict
Three in conflict

Feel… attraction towards another…

Think… it would be wrong to act on this…

Behave… approach and avoidance…

other perspectives
Other Perspectives

lots of definitions and conceptions

1) lay circles

2) pop psychology

lay circles
Lay Circles


extraverted and outgoing

warm and engaging

personality tests
Personality Tests
ways to study personality
Ways to study personality



ways to think about personality
Ways to think about personality

grand theories

  • Freud, Millon

single dimensions

  • locus of control, extraversion
why study personality
Why study personality?

Important for a variety of reasons

when working with others

change versus stability
Change versus Stability

Can personality change?

Begin to stabilize?

the grand scheme
The Grand Scheme


social psychology

psychology (personality psychology)



Social Psychology

Abnormal Psychology


the role of science20
The Role of Science

Personality Psychology = the scientific study of the whole person in terms of species-typical characteristics and individual differences


epistemology - the study of knowledge

rationalism = knowledge by exercising the mind

empiricism = one gains knowledge by sensory experience


Induction – “bottom up”

Deduction – “top down”


1) Observation

2) Theory

3) Testing

a brief history of personality
A Brief History of Personality
  • 1859 – Darwin
  • 1880s – Galton
  • 1900 – Freud
  • 1906 – Pavlov
  • 1917 – First self-report measure
a brief history of personality25
A Brief History of Personality
  • 1919 – John B. Watson
  • 1910 to 1930s – Jung, Adler, Horney
  • 1920s – Kurt Lewin
  • 1930s – Henry Murray
  • 1930s – B. F. Skinner
  • 1930s – Margaret Mead
a brief history of personality26
A Brief History of Personality
  • 1930s – Allport
  • 1940s – R. B. Cattell
  • 1940s – Existential Psychology in US
  • 1950s – Humanistic, Cognitive, Biological
  • 1960s – Interactionist
  • 1970s – Study of Gender Differences
a brief history of personality27
A Brief History of Personality
  • 1970s – Behaviorism begins to fade
  • 1980s – Modern Interactionism
  • 1980s – Evolutionary and Cultural Psychology
  • 1990s – The Big Five
  • 1990s – Theories become narrower
  • 2000s – Neuroscience, Cognitive, Biological
what is next
What is Next?

anyone’s guess

Ideas move in a dialectical fashion

Current: empirical

Future: the opposite of empirical

collecting data
Collecting Data

Self-report: S Data

Peer-report: I Data

Life outcomes: L Data

Watch the person: B Data

data collection
Data Collection


“S Data”

What person says about themselves


Very common

data collection33
Data Collection

“S Data”


  • Best Expert
  • Cause of what you do
  • Simple and easy
data collection34
Data Collection

“S Data”


  • 4 Sources of Distortion
data collection35
Data Collection

Peer report

I Data - “Informant”

data collection36
Data Collection

2) Peer report


  • Objectivity
data collection37
Data Collection

Peer report


Problem with closeness

leniency or harshness effect

data collection38
Data Collection

Life Outcomes

L Data

How much money? Arrested? Graduate?

data collection39
Data Collection

Life Outcomes


  • Objective
  • Exactly what we study
  • Link to psych variables
data collection40
Data Collection

Life Outcomes


  • Behavior is multi-determined
data collection41
Data Collection

Direct Observation

B Data

Natural Observation

data collection42
Data Collection

“B Data”


  • Objective
  • Quantifiable
  • Natural actions
data collection43
Data Collection

“B Data”


  • Hawthorne Effect
  • Bias
total assessment
Total Assessment

Behavioral Data

L Data

B Data


Life Outcomes

S Data

I Data

Peer Report