CHAPTER 21 PHRASES and CLAUSES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CHAPTER 21 PHRASES and CLAUSES
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CHAPTER 21 PHRASES and CLAUSES

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  1. OBJECTIVES FOR THE DAY: To recognize prepositional phrases in sentences and distinguish between adjective phrases and adverb phrases. To identify appositives and appositive phrases and the words they rename. CHAPTER 21 PHRASES and CLAUSES

  2. Part #1: Prepositional Phrases: Adjective phrases • Prepositional Phrases (page 450) • Adjective phrases • Modifies a noun or pronoun • Answers: What kind? Which one? • Example #1 (from Exercise #1 page 451) • There are several different kinds of Native American tribes in North America. • What is the prepositional phrase? • of Native American tribes; in North America • What noun or pronoun does they describe/modify? • kinds

  3. Continued • Example #2 • The culture of each tribe varies. • What is the prepositional phrase? • of each tribe • What noun/pronoun does it describe/modify? • culture • Example #3 • Farming provided their main source of food. • What is the prepositional phrase? • of food • What noun/pronoun does it describe/modify? • source

  4. Day #1: Prepositional Phrases: Adverb phrases • Prepositional Phrases (page 452) • Adverb phrases • Modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb • Answers: Where? When? How? • Example #1 (from Exercise #3 page 453) • The Pawnee divided themselves into four different tribes. • What is the prepositional phrase? • into four different tribes • What verb/adjective/adverb does it describe/modify? • divided

  5. Continued • Example #2 • Most of them lived in earth lodges. • What is the prepositional phrase? • in earth lodges • What verb/adj/adverb does it describe/modify? • lived • Example #3 • Religion was very important to this tribe. • What is the prepositional phrase? • to this tribe • What verb/adj/adverb does it describe/modify? • Points to important

  6. Part #2: Appositive and Appositive Phrases • Appositives • A noun/pronoun placed near another noun/pronoun to rename or explain it. • Sometimes set off by commas • Example #1 • A tribe of the Northeast, the Iroquois, made pottery, baskets, beadwork, and quill work. • When set off by commas, it can be removed and still make sense.

  7. Appositive Phrases • Appositive Phrases • A noun/pronoun with modifiers, placed next to a noun/pronoun to add information & details. • Example #1 (from Exercise #5 page 455) • Sugar cane, a plant with a strong stem, was used to make armor for Creek warriors. • a plant with a strong stem • Points to Sugar cane

  8. Continued • Example #2 • Clubs, slings, lances, and bows and arrows – the usual weapons of war – were made of cane, rock, and other materials found in the area. • the usual weapons of war • Points to Clubs, slings, lances, and bows and arrows

  9. (Part #3) 21.1 Compound Appositives • Compound Appositives: • 2 or more appositives or appositive phrases connected by a conjunction and used to identify the same noun or pronoun. • Reference your conjunctions on page 408. • Example #1 • Two cities, Venice and Genoa, were great rivals at one time. • Compound appositive: Venice and Genoa • Describes: cities

  10. Practice: Identifying Compound Appositives • The puppies, a tiny hound and a winsome terrier, stared up at us. • What is the compound appositive? • a tiny hound and a winsome terrier • What noun/pronoun does it rename/describe? • puppies

  11. Practice: Identifying Compound Appositives • Viewing ocean creatures, fish and other animals, is one reason that underwater diving is popular. • What is the appositive? • fish and other animals • What noun/pronoun does it rename/describe? • creatures

  12. Combining Sentences Using Appositive Phrases • Example #1 • Feathers were used not only for headdresses but also for acts of bravery. These feathers were called honor feathers. • Tip #1: The second sentence will always be used as the appostive (phrase). • Tip #2: Remember, appositives (phrases) usually come directly after the noun/pronoun it identifies.

  13. Combining Sentences Using Appositive Phrases • Example #1 (Let’s try it out) • Feathers were used not only for headdresses but also for acts of bravery. These feathers were called honor feathers. • Answer: • Feathers, called honor feathers, were used not only for headdresses but also for acts of bravery.

  14. Continued • Example #2 • Markings on the feathers identified the brave deed. The markings were cuts or adornments. • Answer: • Markings on the feathers, cuts or adornments, identified the brave deed.

  15. Continued • Example #3 • Sam typed his paper. It was a book report. • Answer: • Sam typed his paper, a book report.

  16. (Part #4) 21.1 Participles & Participial Phrases • Participles : • Form of a verb that acts as an adjective. It modifies a noun/pronoun. • Present participles (in present tense) • A bubbling pot sat on the stove. • Modifies pot • Past participles (past tense) • Pleased, Kimberly sat down. • Modifies Kimberly

  17. A Verb or a Participle? • Easy! • If the word is part of the verb phrase, it’s a verb; if not, it’s a participle. • Refer to helping verbs on page 370. • Examples: • The crowd was laughing at the street corner clown. • Is the word acting as a verb or participle? • VERB because was is a helping verb making “was laughing” a verb phrase. • The annoyed customer spoke rudely to the clerk. • Verb or participle? • PARTICIPLE because it stands along w/out a helping verb; plus, it modifies customer.

  18. 21.1 (Part #5) Understanding the Participial Phrase • Key Concept of Participial Phrases • Basically, they’re just like participles, except: • It may be placed before or after the word it modifies. • Not always set off by commas because they’re essential to the meaning of the sentence.

  19. Example to review… • The woman singing now has a good voice. • Step 1: What is your participial phrase? • Answer: “singing now” • Step 2: Who/what is “singing now”? It will be the word the phrase modifies. • Answer: “woman”

  20. Example to review… • Games played before opening day do not count toward the championship. • Step 1: What is your participial phrase? • Answer: “played before opening day” • Step 2: What does the phrase modify? • Answer: “Games”

  21. Example to review… • Feeling better, the patient ate some soup. • Step 1: What is your participial phrase? • Answer: “feeling better” • Step 2: What is the word it modifies? • Answer: “patient”

  22. Example to review… • The man holding the baby is my uncle. • Step 1: What is your participial phrase? • Answer: “holding the baby” • Step 2: What is the phrase modifies? • Answer: “man”

  23. Writing Sentences with Participial Phrases – Examples to Review • The money was stolen from First Bank. It was later recovered. • Step 1: You basically just combine the two. • Step 2: You DO NOT ADD words; however, you may take out words. • Step 3: It’s okay if you must change a verb/participle’s form to let the sentence make sense. Answer is: • The money stolen from First Bank was later recovered.

  24. Writing Sentences with Participial Phrases – Examples to Review • The aerialist walked across the wire. He balanced himself carefully. • Step 1: You basically just combine the two. • Step 2: You DO NOT ADD words; however, you may take out words. • Step 3: It’s okay if you must change a verb/participle’s form to let the sentence make sense. Answer is: • Balancing himself carefully, the aerialist walked across the wire.

  25. Writing Sentences with Participial Phrases – Examples to Review • The boy is running down the street. He is Eddy. • Step 1: You basically just combine the two. • Step 2: You DO NOT ADD words; however, you may take out words. • Step 3: It’s okay if you must change a verb/participle’s form to let the sentence make sense. Answer is: • The boy running down the street is Eddy.

  26. 21.1 Infinitive & Infinitive Phrases • Main Idea of Infinitives • A (present tense) verb that is preceded by “to” & acts as a noun, adjective, & adverb. • It is never just a verb. • Main Functions of Infinitives: • NOUN: When it functions as a subject, direct object, appositive, object of a preposition, and predicate nominative. • ADJECTIVE: When it modifies a noun or pronoun it follows. • ADVERB: When it modifies a verb/adverb it follows.

  27. Refreshment for NOUN FUNCTION • Subject: Main focus of the sentence. • Direct Object: When the infinitive answers “verb + what”? • Predicate Nominative: When the infinitive follows the linking verb (linking verbs on page 366-367) • Appositive: When infinitive is removed, the sentence still makes sense. • Object of the Preposition: When the infinitive follows a preposition.

  28. Practice: Identify the Infinitive and its function • Native Americans had a variety of ways to travel. • Infinitive: to travel • Function: adjective • Note: • We see that it does not follow any of the noun functions. • It follows a noun (ways). What modifies nouns/pronouns? Adjectives; therefore the infinitive is an adjective.

  29. Practice: Identify the Infinitive and its function • To walk on top of the snow is the purpose of snowshoes. • Infinitive: to walk • Function: Noun (subject) • Note: • We see that it is the subject (main focus of a sentence); therefore, it’s a noun.

  30. Infinitive or Prepositional Phrase? • Prepositional phrases always end with a noun or pronoun. • Infinitives always end with a verb. • Examples: • Clothing of different tribes varied from area to area. • to area • Prep. Phrase because area is a noun. • Plains tribes used tubes of bone to make a hair-pipe breastplate. • to make • Infinitive because make is a verb.

  31. Infinitive Phrases • Main Idea of Infinitive Phrases: • An infinitive with modifiers, complements, or a subject all acting together as a noun, adjective, or adverb. • It also has the same functions as the infinitives themselves.

  32. Example: Identify the Infinitive Phrase & its function • Example: • Dana’s desire to help people led to her career in medicine. • Infinitive phrase: to help people • Function: Adjective • Note: The phrase doesn’t follow any noun functions, so we look at the word it follows – desire. Desire is a noun; therefore, the phrase is an adjective because it’s modifying the noun. • Note #2:” to her career in medicine” is not an infinitive phrase. Remember, infinitives are present-tense verbs preceded by “to”.

  33. Infinitive Phrases • Example • The new law requires infants to ride in special seats. • Infinitive phrase: infants to ride in special seats • Function: Noun (Direct Object) • Why is infants included? • When we see that we may find a direct object in this case, you include the whole answer as a phrase. • “requires what?” …infants to ride in special seats

  34. Infinitive do not always have “to” included. • Main Idea: • When an infinitive or infinitive phrase is used as the D.O. of certain verbs, “to” is often omitted. • Example: • We saw the Olympic torch bearer pass by. • To find your infinitive, look for the direct object. • “saw what?” the Olympic torch bearer pass by. • “the Olympic torch bearer pass by” will be your infinitive phrase. • Where should “to” be put in the phrase? Look for the verb in the phrase itself. • “to” should be put in front of “pass”.