Preposition Review • A preposition relates the noun or pronoun following it to another word in the sentence.
Prepositional Phrases • A prepositional phrase has at least two parts: a preposition and a noun or pronoun that is the object of the preposition prep object EXAMPLE: near airports • The object of the preposition may be modified by one or more adjectives. prep adj adj object EXAMPLE: near busy urban airports • The object may also be compound. prep adj adj object conj object EXAMPLE: near busy urban highways and airports
Prepositional Phrases That Act as Adjectives • An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun by telling what kind or which one. The roadway with two lanes began there. What kind of highway began there? The rancher with the angry face stopped us. Which rancher stopped us?
Adjective Phrase Practice • Grammar w/b p. 69 ex. 1
Prepositional Phrases That Act as Adverbs • An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. Adverb phrases point out where, when, in what way (how), or to what extent. modifying a verb : Raindrops fell in heavy torrents. (Fell in what way?) modifying an adjective: The day was warm for December. (Warm in what way?) modifying an adverb: The tornado struck suddenly, within minutes of the warning. (Suddenly to what extent?)
Adverb Phrase Practice • Grammar w/b p. 71 ex. 1
Appositives • An appositive is a noun or a pronoun placed after another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain the preceding word. EXAMPLES The painterPablo Picasso lived in Spain. I want to visit Spain’s famous museum, The Prado. His paintingGuernica impressed my father.
Appositive Phrases • An appositive phrase is an appositive that has modifiers. EXAMPLES Willa Cather, an American novelist, wrote My Antonia. Lisbon, a thriving port in Portugal, has often been the scene of espionage. The shopping center – a network of cars, shops, and people – provides many jobs.
Appositive Phrase Practice • Grammar w/b p. 73 ex. 2
Participles • Participles are verb forms with two basic uses: 1) used with helping verbs, they are verbs 2) used to modify nouns or pronouns, they are adjectives all present participles end in –ing She is walking to school. walking = verb They took a walking tour of the city. walking = adjective some past participles end in –ed He has cooked dinner three times this week. cooked = verb The cooked food won’t spoil. cooked = adjective other past participles end in –n, -t, -en, or another irregular ending He has grown six inches! He was by then, of course, a grown man.
Participial Phrases • A participial phrase is a present or past participle and its modifiers. EXAMPLES The instructor, speaking slowly, explained the use of skis. The skier, choosing her slope, looked at its features carefully. The esteemed poet, honored by the award, expressed his thanks. **Notice the commas
Participial Phrase Practice • Grammar w/b p. 75 ex. 1 • Grammar w/b p. 77 ex. 1
Clauses • A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb. • There are two basic kinds: 1) independent 2) dependent (a.k.a. subordinate)
Independent Clauses • An independent clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb that can stand alone as a complete sentence. EXAMPLES S V The air vibrated. S V In the morning, he began to play the cello.
Subordinate Clauses • A subordinate, or dependent, clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. EXAMPLES S V after she performed her solo S V while the band practiced in the garage
Adjective Clauses • An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. EXAMPLES The student whom Iasked for help turned pages of music for me. By pushing the pedal thatis connected to the drum, you will make sound. The harp, which was played in ancient Egypt, was forbidden for women to play. The piano, whose strings are hit by hammers to produce sound, can be made louder or softer by foot pedals.
Adjective Clause Practice • Grammar w/b p. 79 ex. 1
Adverb Clauses • An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. • A subordinating conjunction (next slide) always introduces the adverb clause. EXAMPLES Since you expect to be late, I will prepare dinner. I will prepare dinner since you expect to be late. Whenever you are late, I expect you to call. I expect you to call whenever you are late.
Adverb Clauses Practice • Grammar w/b p. 81 ex. 1