Prepositional Phrases • Prepositional Phrases: preposition, its object, and modifiers. • Two types: adjective phrases and adverb phrases • Adjective Phrases: modify noun or pronoun • My grade in this class is excellent. • Adverb Phrases: modify verb, adverb, or adjective. • The teacher repeated in a loud, slow tone.
Prepositional Phrases • Avoid strings of prepositional phrases. Trim down where you can. • Use prepositional phrases appropriately. • Abraham Lincoln wrote the Gettysburg address while traveling from Washington to Gettysburg on the back of an envelope.
Appositives and Appositive Phrases • A noun or pronoun that identifies or renames another noun or pronoun • Essential appositives: provide information that is necessary to identify the preceding noun or pronoun • Non-essential appositives: adds information to the noun or pronoun in a sentence to which the meaning is already clear.
Appositives • Essential: • The famous singer Taylor Swift is going to be at the Citizen’s Center next month. • Non-essential: • Taylor Swift, a popular musical artist, will only be doing unreleased songs.
Participial Phrases • Participle is a verb form that acts as an adjective. • Participial phrase is the participle and all the modifiers and complements. • Example: Foolishlywasting time, he studied the broken creature.
Past and Present Participles • Past: Stretched out and comfortable, the dog took up most of the bed. • Present: The children took their time, walking back slowly from lunch.
Gerund Phrases • An –ing verb acting as a noun. • He loves cooking. • Gerunds can act as: • Subject • Object of preposition • Direct/indirect object • Predicate nominative
Infinitive Phrases • A verb form, almost always beginning with “to”, that can act as a noun, an adverb, or an adjective. • To cook a delicious meal is not that difficult. • To become an award winning chef, most people need culinary training. • Cooking can be a skill to learn at any age.
Kinds of Clauses • Clause: a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. • Independent clause: expresses a complete thought; it can stand alone. • Subordinate clauses: contains a subject or verb but doesn’t compose a complete thought, and therefore cannot stand alone.
Kinds of clauses cont… • In order to express a complete thought, you must combine a subordinate clause with an independent clause. • Independent clause • Subordinate clause • Although she enjoys walking, she decided to take the bus instead. • **Don’t get confused with verbal phrases; clauses must have a subject and a verb**
Adjective and Adverb Clauses • Adjective Clauses: a subordinate clause that acts as an adjective. • Always introduced by either a relative pronoun or a relative adverb. • Relative Pronouns: who, whom, whose, that, which. • Relative Adverbs: when, where, why
Adjective and Adverb Clauses Cont… • Essential Adjective Clauses: provide information necessary to identify preceding noun or pronoun. • Someone who is your classmate is the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize. • Nonessential Adjective Clauses: adds information about the preceding noun or pronoun. • Melissa, who is your classmate, is very good at science.
Adjective and Adverb Clauses Cont… • Adverb Clauses: a subordinate clause that acts as an adverb. • Adverb clauses are usually introduced by a subordinating conjunction (list on page 96). • When you win the Nobel Peace Prize, you become part of an elite group of men and women.
Noun Clauses • Noun Clause: subordinate clause being used as a noun. • Can act as subject, direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative (subject complement), or object of preposition. • Introduced by either subordinating conjunction or pronoun.
Noun Clauses • Subject: That my brother and sister influence me is obvious. • Direct Object: They know exactly what drives me crazy. • Indirect Object: My parents tell whoever is the loudest to quiet down. • Predicate Nominative: My sister’s or brother’s praise is also what inspires me. • Object of the Preposition: We encourage each other in whatever ways we can.
Sentence Structure • Simple Sentences: Independent clause • Compound Sentences: two or more independent clauses joined together. • Complex Sentences: One independent clause and one subordinate clause. • Compound-Complex Sentences: Two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clause.