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Phrases and Clauses. Prepositional Phrases. Prepositional Phrases: preposition, its object, and modifiers. Two types: adjective phrases and adverb phrases Adjective Phrases: modify noun or pronoun My grade in this class is excellent. Adverb Phrases: modify verb, adverb, or adjective.

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prepositional phrases
Prepositional Phrases
  • Prepositional Phrases: preposition, its object, and modifiers.
  • Two types: adjective phrases and adverb phrases
    • Adjective Phrases: modify noun or pronoun
      • My grade in this class is excellent.
    • Adverb Phrases: modify verb, adverb, or adjective.
      • The teacher repeated in a loud, slow tone.
prepositional phrases1
Prepositional Phrases
  • Avoid strings of prepositional phrases. Trim down where you can.
  • Use prepositional phrases appropriately.
    • Abraham Lincoln wrote the Gettysburg address while traveling from Washington to Gettysburg on the back of an envelope.
appositives and appositive phrases
Appositives and Appositive Phrases
  • A noun or pronoun that identifies or renames another noun or pronoun
  • Essential appositives: provide information that is necessary to identify the preceding noun or pronoun
  • Non-essential appositives: adds information to the noun or pronoun in a sentence to which the meaning is already clear.
appositives
Appositives
  • Essential:
    • The famous singer Taylor Swift is going to be at the Citizen’s Center next month.
  • Non-essential:
    • Taylor Swift, a popular musical artist, will only be doing unreleased songs.
participial phrases
Participial Phrases
  • Participle is a verb form that acts as an adjective.
  • Participial phrase is the participle and all the modifiers and complements.
    • Example: Foolishlywasting time, he studied the broken creature.
past and present participles
Past and Present Participles
  • Past: Stretched out and comfortable, the dog took up most of the bed.
  • Present: The children took their time, walking back slowly from lunch.
gerund phrases
Gerund Phrases
  • An –ing verb acting as a noun.
    • He loves cooking.
  • Gerunds can act as:
    • Subject
    • Object of preposition
    • Direct/indirect object
    • Predicate nominative
infinitive phrases
Infinitive Phrases
  • A verb form, almost always beginning with “to”, that can act as a noun, an adverb, or an adjective.
    • To cook a delicious meal is not that difficult.
    • To become an award winning chef, most people need culinary training.
    • Cooking can be a skill to learn at any age.
kinds of clauses
Kinds of Clauses
  • Clause: a group of words that contains a subject and a verb.
    • Independent clause: expresses a complete thought; it can stand alone.
    • Subordinate clauses: contains a subject or verb but doesn’t compose a complete thought, and therefore cannot stand alone.
kinds of clauses cont
Kinds of clauses cont…
  • In order to express a complete thought, you must combine a subordinate clause with an independent clause.
    • Independent clause
    • Subordinate clause
    • Although she enjoys walking, she decided to take the bus instead.
  • **Don’t get confused with verbal phrases; clauses must have a subject and a verb**
adjective and adverb clauses
Adjective and Adverb Clauses
  • Adjective Clauses: a subordinate clause that acts as an adjective.
    • Always introduced by either a relative pronoun or a relative adverb.
      • Relative Pronouns: who, whom, whose, that, which.
      • Relative Adverbs: when, where, why
adjective and adverb clauses cont
Adjective and Adverb Clauses Cont…
  • Essential Adjective Clauses: provide information necessary to identify preceding noun or pronoun.
    • Someone who is your classmate is the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • Nonessential Adjective Clauses: adds information about the preceding noun or pronoun.
    • Melissa, who is your classmate, is very good at science.
adjective and adverb clauses cont1
Adjective and Adverb Clauses Cont…
  • Adverb Clauses: a subordinate clause that acts as an adverb.
    • Adverb clauses are usually introduced by a subordinating conjunction (list on page 96).
  • When you win the Nobel Peace Prize, you become part of an elite group of men and women.
noun clauses
Noun Clauses
  • Noun Clause: subordinate clause being used as a noun.
    • Can act as subject, direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative (subject complement), or object of preposition.
    • Introduced by either subordinating conjunction or pronoun.
noun clauses1
Noun Clauses
  • Subject: That my brother and sister influence me is obvious.
  • Direct Object: They know exactly what drives me crazy.
  • Indirect Object: My parents tell whoever is the loudest to quiet down.
  • Predicate Nominative: My sister’s or brother’s praise is also what inspires me.
  • Object of the Preposition: We encourage each other in whatever ways we can.
sentence structure
Sentence Structure
  • Simple Sentences: Independent clause
  • Compound Sentences: two or more independent clauses joined together.
  • Complex Sentences: One independent clause and one subordinate clause.
  • Compound-Complex Sentences: Two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clause.