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ISLAM. EARLY BEGINNINGS. A prophet named Muhammad was born in 570 A.D. He was orphaned at age 6 and raised by an uncle and grandfather Muhammad’s uncle was a trader and Muhammad went with him on his travels Muhammad grew to dislike the traditional worship of the tribes people

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Early beginnings
EARLY BEGINNINGS

  • A prophet named Muhammad was born in 570 A.D.

  • He was orphaned at age 6 and raised by an uncle and grandfather

  • Muhammad’s uncle was a trader and Muhammad went with him on his travels

  • Muhammad grew to dislike the traditional worship of the tribes people

  • Muhammad met Jews and Christians who worshipped one God and he grew to respect them and their beliefs


Muhammad the prophet
Muhammad the Prophet

  • At age 40 Muhammad was meditating on Mt Hira near Mecca

  • Muhammad heard a voice say, “ You are the Messenger of God.”

  • Muhammad believed that God spoke to him through the angel Gabriel

  • He then began preaching that there is only one God named Allah and all other gods must be rejected


Medina city of the prophet
MEDINA: CITY OF THE PROPHET

  • Some people in Mecca did not like Muhammad speaking against the long held traditions

  • They threatened to kill Muhammad

  • In 622 AD Muhammad moved north to Medina with his followers

  • This date marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar

  • In Medina Muhammad laid the foundation of the Islamic faith

  • Islam means “peace through the submission to the will of God”

  • A Muslim is one who believes in Islam


Return to mecca
RETURN TO MECCA

  • In 630 AD Muhammad returned to Mecca

  • He had 10,000 followers with him

  • He was able to capture Mecca without much resistance

  • Mecca became the center of the Muslim world


The ka aba
THE KA’ABA

  • It is a holy shrine believed to have been built by Abraham and his son Ishmael as an altar to God

  • It is located in the center of Mecca

  • Upon his return, Muhammad reclaimed the shrine

  • He cleaned it and rededicated it to Allah

  • It is the center of Islam to this day

  • It is the place of the annual pilgrimage and direction of prayer for Muslims from all corners of the globe


Muhammad s death
MUHAMMAD’S DEATH

  • In 632 AD Muhammad lead a pilgrimage to Mecca

  • He gave his final speech here

  • He urged kindness and respect towards others; especially women

  • Muhammad died shortly after this speech

  • He is buried in Medina


Spread of islam
SPREAD OF ISLAM

  • Between 636 and 639 AD Muslims conquered and converted many countries around them

  • These included Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Mesopotamia

  • In less than 50 years the Muslim borders were from Spain to China

  • This was half of the known civilized world at that time

  • Muslims were tolerant of existing religions

  • Especially monotheistic religions like Judaism and Christianity

  • Muslims did not try to force others to convert to Islam


Qur an
QUR’AN

  • The Qur’an is the Muslim holy book

  • It is a code that tells how to live your life so you can have a place in heaven

  • It is believed that Muhammad’s speeches were messages from God

  • Muhammad could not write; so at first the messages were given orally

  • After Muhammad’s death his followers wrote down his words in Arabic

  • This became the first written form of the Qur’an

  • It has 114 chapters called surahs


Beliefs
BELIEFS

  • There is no other God but Allah

  • Muhammad is his prophet

  • God is all powerful and all knowing

  • There is a Judgment Day where one’s soul will enter heaven or hell depending on how one lived their life

  • Muhammad is the last in a line of prophets which include Abraham and Jesus


Practices
PRACTICES

Five Pillars

These are the 5 duties all Muslims must perform to demonstrate their submission to the will of God

  • Faith- Believe and say, “There is not God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet”

  • Prayer- Pray in Arabic five times a day, at specific times, and facing Mecca

    3. Alms-Give to the poor and needy

    4. Fasting- Fast during the month of Ramadan each year, avoiding all food and beverages between sunrise and sunset

    5. Hajj- If possible, make a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca once during a lifetime


Muslim community splits
MUSLIM COMMUNITY SPLITS

  • The Muslim community splits over how to choose a leader after Muhammad died

  • There are two main Sects:

    • Sunni’s- 90%-believe any Muslim who follows Muhammad's example may be ruler

    • Shiites-10%- believe only a descendant of Muhammad and Ali ( Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law) may be a ruler

  • The division between the Sunni and the Shiites continues to cause conflict in the Muslim world today


  • Facts
    FACTS

    • Islam is the second largest world religion

    • It is the fastest growing religion

    • There are 1.2 billion Muslims today

    • There are 43 countries with Muslim-majority populations


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