CHAPTER 7. ATOMIC STRUCTURE and PERIODICITY. CHAPTER OVERVIEW. (7.1-7.2) Electromagnetic radiation, solving for wavelength and frequency, quantized energy, Debroglie relationship for calculating wavelength of a particle, particle wave duality and continuous vs. discrete line spectrum.
1m = 109 nm
1 hz = 1/ second
106hz = 1 Megahertz
we will use 3.00 x 108 m/s
Ex. What is the wavelength of light that has a frequency of 5 Hz? Is this visible?
E = h
Ex. What is the energy associated with light with a frequency of 6.65 x 108 / second?
Used to find the apparent mass of a photon
(careful – velocity, for things not travelling at the speed of light)
Used to find the apparent wavelength of a massive object
DeBroglie’s equation: = h/ mv
Mass of e-1 = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
All other frequencies will be a multiple of the fundamental frequency.
And so on…
HOW CAN THE ELECTRON’s POSTION or MOTION BE DESCRIBED?
- h 2d2= E
2 m dx2
(the Hamiltonian operator)
where h is a modification of Planck’s constant = h / 2 = 1.05457 x 10-34 Js
m = the mass of the particle
E is the energy of the wave function which has three dimensions built in.
and the d2 term means to take the 2nd derivative of the function
The distance from the nucleus
Cannot be 0 since it would be undefined mathematically since n is in the denominator of the Schrodinger equation.
The shape of the orbital with the most probability of finding the e-
0 to (m-1)
The orientation of the orbital in 3D space
- L to l including 0
Phosphorus, strontium, nickel, krypton
Fill energy level diagram, determine quantum set, valence electrons, and electron configurations
ns > np > nd > nf (within the same energy level)
The more positive the nucleus, the smaller the orbital.
I1 = 735 kJ/mole
I2 = 1445 kJ/mole
I3 = 7730 kJ/mole
I1 = 580 kJ/mole
I2 = 1815 kJ/mole
I3 = 2740 kJ/mole
I4 = 11,600 kJ/mole
K Ca Cr Kr
Cs Ag Si F
O S Se Te