Behavior: A Hot Topic Targeting the Behavior, not the Student!
Acknowledgement • Some of the following information has been taken or altered from materials created by Dr. Laura Riffel, Behavior Consultant and is used with her permission.
What is Behavior? • Behavior is simply anything a student does that can be observed or recorded. • The word “behavior” does not automatically imply that the behavior is voluntary or willful. • However, keep in mind when labeling a student’s action(s) as “behavior”, it can be inflammatory, as parents often interpret this word as meaning school personnel are implying the behavior is intentional, therefore their child needs to be punished.
Strategy for School Personnel Consider using objective statements that provide: • a short verbal description of the behavior; • a brief description of the impact the behavior has on the student and others; and • acknowledgement that the behavior may not be willful and that the behavior may be a symptom of the student’s disability.
Greeting Students Touch Them Use their name in a positive way Make eye contact Smile
Define Target Behaviors Examples: • Hitting others with a fist, or an object • Laying on the floor and refusing to move • Crying Non-Examples: • Poor impulse control • Angry, hostile, resentful • Stubborn • (These behaviors are difficult to describe • and often lead to misinterpretation) FBA information provided by Dr. Laura Riffel, Ph.D.
Possible Reasons for Behavior • Difficult behaviors and academic concerns may develop secondary to: • medical problems, • language delays, • learning disabilities, • delayed cognition; and/or • mood disorders. • It is important to remember that ALL behavior has a reason, you just have to navigate a different path to find the reason.
OTHER POTENTIAL REASONS FOR BEHAVIOR: • problems at home; • issues with peers; • demands at school; • boredom; and/or • anxiety.
Consider Setting Events • Medical Concerns: • Sinus infections • Medication side effects • Sleep deprivation • Activity Patterns: • Staying up late on school nights • Behaviors that only occur in the gym or on the playground • Relationships with Others: • Antagonistic relationships • Favorite person being absent
Ten Things You Should Know About Behavior • 1. Behavior is learned and serves a specific purpose.
Functional Behavioral Assessment: Summary Statement(s) • Given a context/routine: Setting Antecedent Problem Maintaining Baby Example: Alone Mom and Dad Talking Cough Attention Event Stimulus Behavior Consequence
2. Behavior is related to the context within which it occurs. Different context=Different behavior
3.For every year a behavior is in place it takes at least one month for that behavior to have a significant change.
4. We can improve behavior by 80% by simply pointing out what one student is doing correctly.
5. Though we know we can improve behavior by 80%, we point out the appropriate behavior less than 10% of the time!
4 Positives for Every Negative • Abacus • 20 beads • Start in the morning with all 20 beads on your left side • Every time you compliment a student on their appropriate behavior move a bead to the right side. • Every time you reprimand a student move 4 beads back to the left side.
Paper clips • Put 30 paper clips in your left pocket or a cup. • Every time you compliment a student, move a paper clip into the other pocket or cup. • Every time you make a reactive statement to a student, move 4 paper clips back to where they started.
VIBRATING WATCH: Reminds you to catch students being good and is also a great intervention to assist students to stay on task. http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_2?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=vibralite+3 http://www.eseasongear.com/viviwa.html
To increase cooperation from students, try whispering in their right ear and offering them equal choices.“You may have the purple pencil • or yellow pencil”.
Use Choices • Instead of saying “Sit Down”, use open-ended questions like: • Which chair would you like to sit in, • the blue one or the green one? • If they still refuse, repeat the choice and walk away. • Never engage in a power struggle; you will lose.
All behavior falls into two categories • 7. Positive Reinforcement OR Negative Reinforcement. When a student exhibits inappropriate behavior, they are either trying to gain or escape something.
8. Students may be trying to obtain: • Attention from adults or other students; • Access to highly preferred items; or • Sensory: proprioceptive/ • vestibular input.
9. student may be trying to escape: • Work or tasks; • Attention from adults or peers; • Pain (emotional or physical); or • Sensory overload (too much input).
10. Your reaction determines whether a behavior will happen again or not. • In order to change student behavior, we have to also change our own behavior (reactions). We want to switch from a reactive approach to a proactive approach.
Three Key Strategies for Proactive Behavior Management • Identify how to intervene early in an escalation. • Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated. • Identify replacement behaviors that can be taught and serve a similar function. OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
IDEA The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004 makes provisions for students being served in special education in regard to functional behavior assessments (FBA) and positive behavior support (PBS).
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) broadens an intervention from only one approach – reducing challenging behaviors, to encompassing multiple approaches: • changing systems; • altering environments; • teaching skills; and • appreciating positive behavior. The OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)
Classroom Expectations • Behavior Expectations • Express in positive and observable terms. • State in language easy to understand. • Consequences • Consequences for Appropriate Behavior • Recognition of good behavior. • Procedures for acknowledging expected behavior. • Consequences for Inappropriate Behavior • Clear consequences for rule violations. • Hierarchy of responses to behavior.
School-wide Behavior Expectations Example: PAWS BePrompt Accept responsibility Work Hard Show respect
Strategies for Teaching Students with Behavior Difficulties • Change the mode of instruction to meet the needs of the student (visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile). • Break instruction and tasks into manageable blocks. • Provide oral prompts, especially for transitions (“in two minutes it will be time to put away materials and line-up for music class”). • Provide physical prompts (shoulder tap, proximity of teacher etc.). • Visual prompts (daily schedule, task analysis of an activity).
Normal resting heart rate is 60 beats per minute. • Research shows increase in heart beat up to 45 seconds before the aggressive act. • Gary Lamb’s music is 60 beats per minute. • www.garylamb.com/
5 Way too loud! AHHH!! 4 Loud “I said…” 3 Talking “Today at school… “Today, I was walking down the hall and I saw..” 2 Whispering 1 No Talking zzzzzzz http://www.5pointscale.com/books_links.htm
If a child can’t read…we teach. If a child can’t compute…we teach. If a child can’t spell…we teach. If a child can’t behave…we punish. Dr. Bob Algozzine
Final Thought • Geoff Colvin (1989)- • “It is always important to remember that if you inadvertently assist the student to escalate, do not be concerned; you will get another chance to do it right the next time around.” OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
Sources of Information National Dissemination Center for Childhood Disabilities (NICHCY resources available until September 2014) http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/emotionaldisturbance • The Center for Parent Information and Resources' Library (many documents from NICHCY will be hosted on this site) • http://www.parentcenterhub.org/resources The OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) http://www.pbis.org/default.aspx Behavior Doctor Seminars http://www.behaviordoctor.org/ Oklahoma State Department of Education, Special Education Services http://ok.gov/sde/disability-category
Resources • This is a great teacher resource book: Challenging Kids, Challenged Teachers: Teaching Students With Tourette's, Bipolar Disorder, Executive Dysfunction, OCD, ADHD, and More • This is the link to the author’s Website: http://www.challengingkids.com/?page_id=2 • This is a link to the Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention: http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/explore/pbs/pbs.htm • This is a link to a site that offers school mental health resources not only for clinicians, but also for educators, administrators, parents/caregivers, families, and students: www.schoolmentalhealth.org/ • This is an inexpensive book with reproducible charts for a variety of self-regulation issues: http://www.5pointscale.com/books_links.htm • This is a wonderful resource for providing a calming classroom environment: http://www.musicintheclassroom.com
Resources Continued… • This is a link to the Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention: • http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/explore/pbs/pbs.htm • Here are a couple of links to sensory diet sites that offers explanations and lots of ideas for • students who are need of sensory input to either assist with focus or calm their body: • http://nspt4kids.com/parenting/what-is-proprioception-and-why-is-it-important/ • http://sensorysmarts.com/sensory_diet_activities.html • Link to a wonderful teacher resource for classroom grants: http://www.donorschoose.org/ • Link to First task, Then preferred item/activity examples: • https://www.google.com/images?hl=en&biw=&bih=&q=first+then+board&gbv=2&sa= • &oi=image_result_group&ei=kXcrU-HTFayI2gXu4IHYAQ&ved=0CBsQsAQand • http://lessonpix.com/articles/9/35/First+Then+Boards
Contact Information Karie Crews-St.Yves, Tiered Intervention Specialist Oklahoma State Department of Education Special Education Services (405) 521-2199 Karie.Crews-StYves@sde.ok.gov