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World War I

World War I

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World War I

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  1. World War I 1914-1918

  2. Objective • To understand the causes of World War I • To understand the nature of World War I • To understand how World War I ended • To understand the consequences of World War I

  3. The Alliance System • After unifying Germany in 1871, Bismarck saw that Germany was vulnerable • Bismarck formed alliances • Three Emperor’s League 1873 • Dual Alliance with Austria 1879 • Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy 1882

  4. The Alliance System • To assure Britain, Bismarck did not build a large navy • In 1888 Kaiser Wilhelm I died, grandson Wilhelm II becomes Kaiser

  5. Wilhelm II

  6. Wilhelm II vs. Bismarck

  7. The Alliance System • Germany refuses to renew alliance with Russia • Kaiser Wilhelm II orders construction of large navy

  8. The Alliance System • Britain • “Splendid Isolation” • Entente Cordiale in 1904 • Moroccan Crises (1905, 1911) • Triple Entente with Russia in 1907 • Anglo- Japanese Alliance in 1902

  9. The Balkans • The Eastern Question • What happens after the Ottoman Empire falls apart? • The Balkans • The Balkan Wars

  10. Decline of the Ottoman Empire

  11. The Balkans 1912-13

  12. World War I • Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 • Black Hand • “Blank Check”

  13. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

  14. World War I • The July Crisis • Austrian ultimatum to Serbia on July 24, 1914 • Austria declares war on Serbia July 28, 1914 • Germany declares war on Russia August 1, 1914 • Germany declares war on France August 3, 1914 • Britain’s Role • Belgium

  15. World War I • The July Crisis • Austria declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914 • Germany declares war on Russia on August 1, 1914 • Germany declares war on France on August 3, 1914

  16. Celebrating the Outbreak of World War I

  17. World War I • The Central Powers • The Triple Entente (Allies)

  18. World War I

  19. World War I • The Western Front • Invasion of Belgium • Schlieffen Plan • First Battle of the Marne

  20. The Western Front

  21. Trench Warfare

  22. Trench Warfare

  23. World War I • The Eastern Front • Germany invasion of Russia in 1914 • The war becomes unpopular in Russia

  24. World War I • War expands outside Europe • Africa • Asia • Middle East

  25. World War I • New weapons introduced • Total war

  26. World War I • Russia gets out of the war • February Revolution (March 1917) • Provisional government replaces monarchy • October Revolution (November 1917) • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)

  27. World War I • The United States • Submarine warfare

  28. Sinking of the Lusitania

  29. World War I • The US declares war on Germany in 1917 • US tips the balance on the side of the Allies

  30. World War I • Losses in the war lead to revolution in Germany • Armistice declared November 11, 1918 • World War I comes to an end

  31. The Treaty of Versailles • Representatives from Allied nations and Germany meet in Paris • The Fourteen Points • Treaty of Versailles

  32. Paris Peace Conference 1919

  33. The Treaty of Versailles • End of World War I redraws the map of Europe • Austria-Hungary dissolved • Ottoman Empire dissolved • New nations in central and eastern Europe

  34. Signing the Treaty of Versailles

  35. Europe After World War I

  36. Eastern Europe Demographics, 1919

  37. Deciding the Fate of the Middle East

  38. Post World War I Middle East

  39. The League of Nations • Wilson compromises on Fourteen Points to get support for the League of Nations • Treaty of Versailles had to be ratified by the US

  40. Conclusion • Between 1870 and 1914 European powers enter into alliances • Arms race makes Europe highly unstable • A series of decisions led Europe into World War I • Allies impose a harsh peace on Germany • World War I the most destructive war in history