India: A Journey Through Time
In the Beginning… • Homo sapiens as manyas 75,000 years ago; Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago • Civilization developed along the Indus River around 2500 BCE. • Historically, the subcontinent of India includes Pakistan and Bangladesh
The Indus Valley Civilization • Straddled modern day Pakistan and India • Highly civilized and orderly • Farmers grew wheat, barley, and peas; cattle, goats, and sheep • Lived in towns and traded with other cultures (modern-day Iraq) • Picture writing (undeciphered) • Highly developed engineering (ex: drainage systems) • Began to decline around 1700 BCE • In 1920s, archaeologists uncovered ruins of two main cities (Mohenjo-Daro & Harapppa)
Aryan Invasion (1700-1300 BCE) • Invaders came from Europe • (Indo-European language) • Ruled India for hundreds of years • Set up small kingdoms (rulers called rajas) • Created modern Hinduism from Dravidian religious traditions combined with their own cultural beliefs • Established India’s caste system
Vedic Age (1500-500 BCE) • Rigvedawritten in Sanskrit (India’s literary language) • 10 books • Hymns and invocations to the gods • Mahabharata & Ramayana • Mixture of historical and legendary • Later converted into sacred literature
Alexander the Great (327-326 BCE) • Macedonian (Greek) who led conquering forces across northern India • Ruled briefly • Greeks forced out of India after Alexander’s death
Maurya Empire (322-185 BCE) • Dynasty begun by Chandragupta Maurya • Asoka (grandson) took over from 273-232 BCE • Ruled all of India • Converted to Budhism • Religious tolerance, generosity, and wisdom • Spread Buddhism – Burma, Ceylon, Siam, Tibet • War and disunity after his death
Gupta Dynasty (320-467 CE) • Northern India reunited • Trade • With West • Burma, Indochina, Java, Sumatra • Buddhism and Hinduism spread out – Cultural Diffusion Maurya and Gupta Empires – Interactive Map http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073385514/student_view0/chapter7/interactive_map_quiz.html
Mughal Empire (1526-1858) • 12th century – Muslim invasion • 1500 – Central Asians, led by Mugals, established a kingdom in northern India • Akbar (1556-1605) • Conquest of central India • Efficient and strong government • Religious tolerance • Business and commerce encouraged • Architecture • Forts, mosques, palaces, and tombs • TajMahal – Agra, India – tomb built for a Mughal emperor’s favorite wife
“Engineering of the TajMahal” http://www.history.com/videos/seven-wonders-the-taj-mahal
End of the Mughal Empire • 17th Century – empire crumbled • Fighting between smaller kingdoms • English, French, and Portuguese traders gained influence • Seven Year’s War • Fight in North America known as the French and Indian War • English (British East India company) won control of India from the French …The British are coming!
Colonial India …The British East India Company obtains trading rights from the Mughal Empire
Conquering India...How? • When the Mughal Empire fell, India was divided by different cultures and languages • This made it difficult for Indians to unite and • The British had superior weapons • The British played the princes against one another
British Policy in India What was the main goal of the British East India Company?
British Policy in India • Introducing the western education system • Introducing the British legal system • Converting Indians to Christianity • Working to end the caste system How did the British try to change India? How did the Indians react to this? • Resented British interference in their society • Felt discriminated against- not able to hold government jobs
Rebellion • The Sepoy Rebellion • Unequal British colonial policy • A clash of cultures • Growing nationalism in the 1800s • The Indian National Congress (1885) • The Muslim League
Hindu and Muslim Resistance • Mohandas Gandhi’s main tactic in his fight against the British was what he called Satyagraha- “Soul-Force” • Civil disobedience, nonviolence, tolerance • Greatly influenced Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement in America • Muhammad Ali Jinahwas a lawyer, politician and statesman, and the founder of Pakistan • Gandhi held talks 14 times with Jinnah in Bombay in 1944 about a united Hindu-Muslim front, which failed • Believed Indian Muslims should have their own state
Indian Independence and aSeparate Muslim State • The British begin to give in • Independence in 1947 • Hindu – Muslim violence Kashmir • Independence for Pakistan
Kashmir • Northern India was claimed by both Pakistan and India (Muslims and Hindus lived there). It was divided.
Kashmir Today “By 2012, after decades of war, Kashmir was blooming again. Hotels were bursting, roads were being fixed and offices rebuilt . . . . Tensions still lie just below the surface. In June 2012, a fire gutted one of the most revered Sufi Muslim shrines in Srinagar, Kashmir’s capital, sparking clashes between police and angry Muslim protesters.” -The New York Times – June 26, 2012
Resources: • http://www.britannica.com.ezproxy.samford.edu/EBchecked/topic/285516/history-of- India • http://www.theindianhistory.org/pre-historic-period-in-context-of-indian-history.html • http://www.studenthandouts.com/01-Web-Pages/001-Pages/09.02.History-of-India-Outline.htm • http://www.history.com/videos/seven-wonders-the-taj-mahal • http://highered.mcgraw-Hill.com/sites/0073385514/student_view0/chapter7/interactive_map_quiz.html • http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/kashmir/index.html