History 11 India
The Land of India • India is separated from the rest of Asia by the Himalaya mountains the highest mountains in the world. • The rain pattern is very important for the culture of India. They rely on the rains to come for good crops. If the rains are delayed drought occurs and that is disastrous for farmers crops. With few crops many starve.
Early Civilization The first civilization began in a river valley very similar to the middle east. Early civilization rose up near the Indus river. The summer monsoon flooded the river and left fertile soil. Farmers relied on the soil to grow crops. There was plenty of food so they could spend time doing other things, such as making tools or building houses.
Aryans • The (Harappans) The first known Indians, collapsed around 1500 B.C. they think it was due to earthquakes and floods that damaged the cities. Also the Indus River changed course and killed many people while forcing others to flee. • A people called the Aryans who herded animals came to the area.
Aryans • Some historians believed the the Aryans were part of a larger group called the Indo-Europeans. This group all spoke a similar language and some migrated south while others migrated west to Europe. • Cattle was their prize possession. They provided milk, meat, and butter. The Aryans may have used them as a form of money.
Aryans • They were good warriors who rode horses and had spears with metal tips. They rode wooden chariots which they used to invade villages for food. They entered the Indus River valley around 1500 B.C. • They moved around and left features of their culture with the local cultures.
Aryans • When the Aryans came to India they no longer lived as nomads they switched to farming. But they continued to raise cattle. Eventually the Aryans would declare that cattle were sacred and they were forbidden to use them as food. • Aryans brought with them a language that was developed into a written language known as Sanskirt. This was used tell 1830 AD. The current language Hindi developed from it.
Aryans • Aryans were organized into tribes and each tribe was lead by a raja, or prince. The raja ran their own kingdoms, but they often fought over cattle, treasure, and women kidnapped from other states. • These kingdoms existed from 1500 to 400 B.C.
Society in Ancient India • As a result of the Aryans, India developed a caste system. Caste: a social group that someone is born into and cannot change. • These systems dictate what job you will have, whom you will marry, and who you can associate with. Indians instead of caste use the word jati. Thousands of jati (castes) exist in India.
Social Classes of India • The social classes India are very important to their society. They have thousands of different jati but they are grouped into four main classes and that they call varnas. • The top 2 were: Brahmans and Kshatriyas. • The Brahmans were priests. • The Kshatriyas were the warriors who ran the government.
Social Classes of India • The next level down were the Vaisyas. These were the commoners. They were usually farmers and merchants. • Below that came the Sudras. These were the manual laborers and servants. They did not have many rights. Most Indians belonged to this class.
Indian Society • There was one group that did not even belong to a social class. The members of this group called Pariahs, or the Untouchables. • They preformed work that other Indians thought was too dirty, such as collecting trash, skinning animals, or handling dead bodies. • Many believed that being near untouchables was harmful. Tap 2 sticks when they walk as a warning.
Family Life • In ancient India, the family was the center of life. The oldest man in the family was in charge. Men had more rights. Typically, only sons could inherit property, and only men could go to school or become priests. • Men had guru’s or teachers. Men could only marry after 12 years of school.
Arranged Marriage • Indian parents arranged marriages for their children. Even today, 90 percent of marriages are arranged. • They often marry in their teens. Divorce was not allowed, but if women could not have kids the man could have another wife. • Sutee: Wife jumps onto the fire of her husband. If they did not they were shamed.
Quiz • Name 3 Indian social classes? • True or False no one in India is married by arranged marriages any more? • Who are the Aryans? • What is the name of an Aryan Prince? • What does Sutee mean?
Review • The Caste System. • Levels in the system: Brahman, Kashatryias, Vaisyas, Sudras. • Untouchables: Video clip. Do a Journal: • Is this an issue? Social Rights issues • How can we make social changes? • How does this relate to countries like Saudi Arabia?
Untouchable • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j31veR74gSo&feature=related
Objective • Understand the foundations of Buddhism and Hinduism. • Learn the basics of both teachings. • How do these systems relate to other standards or religions?
Indian Scripture • Most of what we know about India comes from the Vedas. • This is a collection of prayers, hymns, and other religious teachings that were memorized by the priests and passed down verbally for thousands of years. • It was a sacred calling held sacred by the priests.
Telephone • Pass on message from one to another. You can only say it once.
Basics of Hinduism • Hinduism is one of the oldest religions in the world today. It comes from the Vedas. When they were written in Sanskrit they becamesacred writings. • The religion believes in many gods. (Or God has multiple forms) The priests, or Brahmins told stories about the Gods that were passed down.
Hinduism • Over the years the religion changed. Hinduism comes from the customs of many people over thousands of year. • That may be why it has thousands of deities as different parts of one universal spirit. • The universal spirit is called Brahman.
Hinduism • The search for a universal spirit is described in the ancient sacred texts known as the Upanishads. The writings say that every living being has a soul that wants to be reunited with Brahman and this happens when a person dies. • This does not happen immediately. Instead, a person must pass through many lives to be united with Brahman.
Hinduism • Passing through many lives to reach Brahman is called reincarnation. On this journey a soul might be reborn into a higher caste. If a person lived a bad life, they might be reborn into a lower caste or life form. • This concept is very important and it influences how Hindus live their lives. It even affects how they treat animals.
Hinduism • To earn the reward of a better life in their next life, Hindus believed they must perform their duty for whatever caste they were born into. • Dharma is the divine law. It requires people to perform the duties of their caste. • The consequences of how a person lives are known as karma. If they do their duty and live a good life they will have good karma.
Buddhism • By 600 B.C. many Hindus questioned Hindu ideas. The priests seemed to care only about their temple ceremonies and not about the needs of the people. • Siddhartha Gautama was born around 563 BC. He was a wealthy and happily married with one son. One day he went beyond the palace walls.
Buddhism • When Siddhartha left his walls he found heartache, beggars, people who were ill, and people broken down with age. For the first time he saw suffering. • After this he decided to seek the answer to this great question: Why did people suffer and how could their suffering be cured?
Buddha Siddhartha left all his riches and his family and began to search. At first he lived like a hermit, fasting and sleeping on the ground. He nearly starved, but still had no answer. He then decided to meditate for as long as it took to get the answer. Legend has it he meditated for 49 days. Finally he understood. He spent the rest of his life telling people his discovery. These lessons became Buddhism and he
Buddhism • Siddhartha did not think that the normal, everyday world was real. Trees, houses, animals, the sky were just illusions. So were poverty, sickness, pain and sorrow. • He believed the only way to find truth was to give up all desires. Give up the desire for fame, the desire for money, and the desire for worldly things. And pain and sorrow would vanish.
Buddhism If a person would give up all desires, he or she would reach nirvana. Nirvana is not a place but a state of wisdom. The heart of of the teachings comes from: 4 noble truths: 1. Life is full of suffering. 2. People suffer because they desire worldly things and self-satisfaction. 3. the way to end suffering is to stop desiring things. 4. the only way to stop desiring things is to follow the 8 Fold Path.
The Eightfold Path • Know and understand the 4 noble truths. • Give up worldly things and don’t harm others • Tell the truth, don’t gossip, and don’t speak badly of others. • Don’t commit evil acts, like killing, stealing, or living an unclean life. • Do rewarding work. • Work for good and oppose evil. • Make sure your mind keeps your senses under control. • Practice meditation to understand reality.
Buddhism • One big reason Buddhism did so well was because it depended on the person not the system. They could change their place in life depending on their actions. • Buddha did believe in reincarnation, but it was different. To stop being reborn into new lives Buddha said, they would only have to follow the 8 fold Path.
Buddhism • For more than 40 years, Buddha preached his ideas. Disciples gathered around him, and after his death his ideas spread throughout Asia. • As more practiced differences arose. Two groups formed. Theravada sees Buddha as a great teacher. Mahayana worships Buddha is a god who came to save the people.
Quiz • What is the universal spirit of Hinduism? • What is reincarnation? • What great question did Buddha want to answer? • What is Buddha’s original name? • What is the main thing you give up in Buddhism? • Name 3 things from the 8 fold path?
India • The Aryan influence was mostly concentrated in North India. They had pushed the Indian people that were there called (Dravidians) To the south. • There have been several groups that have invaded India. Alexander the Great and the Greeks, Muslims, and the British. Each conquered parts of India but no group has taken the country as a whole.
Vedic Period • This time period went from around 1200 B.C. to 600 B.C. During this time several kingdoms started to emerge. Most of the kingdoms were separate, but they did fight among each other. This is the name given to the time period when the states were divided and ruled by individual raja’s. It was when the Vedas were composed.
Jainism • In 599 Jainism is formed. It is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. You try to obtain moksha through 5 things: Non-Violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy, and non-materialism.
Alexander the Great • 333 BC: Persian rule in the northwest ends after Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great, who establishes the Macedonian Empire. • He fought his way through the Ganges and momentarily conquered the people in his quest to reach the ends of the earth. His men made him turn back.
Chandragupta Maurya • 2 years after the death of Alexander the Great Chandragupta founded the Maurya empire in the 4th century BC. • He is considered the first great empire who unified India and created the Maurya dynasty. • His grandson was Ashoka.
Emperor Ashoka • Unified all of India under the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BC. Around 272 BC. He built hundreds of roads and temples. He also established many hospitals and monasteries. He laid the foundation for the famous Nalanda University. One of the first Universities. • He was also the first king in the world who abolished forced labor.
Ashoka • He was know for his death chamber. He wanted to recreate a “Hell on Earth”. After the great battle at Kalinga he saw the pain and devastation violence caused. • He converted to Buddhism and looked for world peace. He is a big reason Buddhism spread throughout the world.