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W omen E mpowerment : key to P opulation S tabilization in India PowerPoint Presentation
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W omen E mpowerment : key to P opulation S tabilization in India

W omen E mpowerment : key to P opulation S tabilization in India

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W omen E mpowerment : key to P opulation S tabilization in India

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  1. Women Empowerment: key to Population Stabilization in India Harshal R Salve, KapilYadav, Chandrakant S Pandav Centre for Community Medicine All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

  2. Outline of presentation • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights • The Constitution of India • What is women empowerment? • Significant global events towards women empowerment • Women empowerment & population stabilization • History of status of women in India • Current status of women empowerment in India • The way forward

  3. Universal declaration ofhuman rights Article 2. Universal declaration of human rights. (Available at “Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status”

  4. The Constitution of India: Preamble (1950) • WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: • JUSTICE, social, economic and political; • LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship • EQUALITY of status and of opportunity • and to promote among them all • FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation

  5. What is Women Empowerment? Guidelines on women's empowerment, united nations population information network (POPIN) un population division, department of economic and social affairs 1995 Women's empowerment has five components: • Sense of self-worth • Right to have and to determine choices • Right to have access to opportunities and resources • Right to have the power to control their own lives, both withinand outside the home • Ability to influence the direction of social change to create a more just social and economic order, nationally and internationally

  6. Significant global events towards women empowerment

  7. Significant initiatives towards women empowerment Michelle Bachelet (ED & secretary-general), And Justice for All, The Times of India, New Delhi; July 7,2011 • 28 countries: women make up over 30% of parliamentarians • European countries: Increase in the number of women police officers helps to overcome reluctance in reporting sexual assault • Sweden: Improved paternity leave has reduced the gender pay gap • Nepal:Tax exemptions have incentivized families to transfer land to daughters, sisters and wives

  8. Women empowerment & population stabilization Decision taking power Increased awareness Age at marriage Women Empowerment Age at 1st child Improved help seeking behaviour Number of children Child spacing Improved social status Population stabilization

  9. History of status of women in India Maitreyi, Gargi Philosophers & women seers • Freedom to choose partners for marriage • Daughters were not considered as liability or unwelcomed guest in the family • Widow marriages were permissible • Women had Subjugated status • But gave the message that respectable wife is one who humbles herself vis-à-vis her husband • Did not deserve the freedom at any point of time in her life • Not marring a girl before the age of 14 years was a sin Status of women Age of Manushatra (500 – 200 BC) Vedic period (1500-1000 BC) Period of epics (1000-500 BC)

  10. Quotes for women in ‘Manusmriti’ "A woman must never be independent. As a child she should depend on father, in her youth on her husband and after his death to her sons.”"She has to obey her husband or brother whoever takes responsibility of her and she must not insult his memory after his death.“"A woman can emaciate her body by living on pure flowers, roots, and fruit but she must never think of another man after her husband's death or about remarriage.“

  11. Quotes for women in ‘Manusmriti’ "A man can remarry if the wife dies.“"The husband employs his wife in the collection and expenditure of his wealth, in keeping everything clean, in the fulfillment of religious duties, in the preparation of his food, and in looking after the household utensils.""A husband must be constantly worshiped as a god by a faithful wife, despite that he is destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure elsewhere, or devoid of good qualities.“

  12. History of status of women in India Increase in child marriages, sati, dowry, social out casting of widows Social reform movements by Vidyasagar, Ranade, Jyotiba Phule, Maharshi Karve etc. • Purdah system was in place • Polygamy, strict laws for women were prevalent Women lived life of total subjugation & virtually lost all hopes of emancipation Status of women 11th to 19th century 19th century Medieval period (11th century)

  13. Significant events in British rule 1829: Sati Prohibition Act 1848: 1st School for Girls by Jyotiba Phule 1856: Widow Remarriage Act 1929: Sarada Act (Child Marriage Restraint Act)


  15. Rukhmabai (1854 - 1964) • Step daughter of a famous Dr. Sakharam Arjun • Married at age of 11 years to a uneducated, poor Dadaji Thakur •  Legally repudiated her child marriage • Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885, and the Age of Consent Act in 1891

  16. Rukhmabai (1854 - 1964) • Studied at “London School of Medicine for Women” • Worked at Madam Kama Hospital in Surat for few years • Worked at Malavi hospital at Surat for most of her life now known as “Rukhmabai hospital” • First Indian woman doctor who practiced medicine Dr. Anandi Joshi was the first lady doctor

  17. Woman empowerment in Pre – independence era(1921-47) • Under the leadership of Gandhiji , women participated in social movement against dowry and child marriages • Under the leadership of Gandhiji , women participated in social movement against dowry and child marriages “If by strength is meant moral power, then woman is immeasurably man's superior”.

  18. Nehruji at eve of independence “You can tell condition of nation by looking at the status of its women”

  19. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar “I measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress which women have achieved”

  20. Woman empowerment in post-independence era

  21. Woman empowerment in post-independence era

  22. Current status of women empowerment in India

  23. Women in the population {Lowest since independence} • Total population - 1210.2 million (2011) {Almost equal to the combined population of U.S.A., Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan put together} • Women population - 586.5 million (48.5%) • Sex ratio (0 – 6 years) – 914 (women/1000 men)

  24. Educational status of women Literacy rate Department of education, Ministry of Human Resource & Development 2006-07 Census data 2001,2011, RGI, GOI

  25. Economic independence of women Source: Google images • Work participation of women(2001) – 25.63% • Urban: rural ratio of work participation of women - 11.88: 30.79 • Women working in unorganized sectors – 80% • Women economically active at 15 years (2009) – 33%

  26. Women at decision making level 58.2 48.0 Source: Election Commission of India Participation of women in elections increased over the years Proportion of women turnout for voting (2009) – 58.2%

  27. Women at decision making level • Proportion of women in national parliament dipped till year 2007 • “Women Reservation Bill” is still pending in the parliament Proportion of women in national parliament

  28. Violence against women Source: Google images 37 % - experienced physical or sexual violence by their husbands. High inter-state variations (Himachal Pradesh – 6 %, Bihar – 59 %). 54 % women feel that it is justified if the husband beats his wife (under certain circumstances).

  29. The way forward

  30. Factors influcing women empowerment Women literacy Wisdom Economically independent women Industry Women Empowerment Women participation in election Strength Proportion of women in parliament, local bodies Empathy

  31. The women power we have.. Health system Women empowerment by community participation 1.2 million 0.75 million 0.19 million

  32. A triangle that can move the mountain…. Universal primary education Emphasis on girl child Economic equality

  33. Population stabilization…is it possible? Nelson Mandela ( Social Activist and 1st President of South Africa) “Its always seems impossible until its done”

  34. Knowing is not enough, • we must apply; • Willing is not enough, • we must do.”….Goethe JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE (1749 – 1832) German Writer (Poetry, Drama, Prose, Philosophy & Sciences) Pictorial artist, Biologist, Theoretical Physicist, Polymath THANK-YOU