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Chapter 7. ENERGY METABOLISM & BODY TEMPERATURE. § 1. Energy metabolism  Introduction & definition S ubstantial metabolism Assimilation metabolism Dissimilation metabolism (catabolism) E nergy metabolism.  Energy sources & utilization

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Chapter 7


§ 1. Energy metabolism

Introduction & definition


Assimilation metabolism

Dissimilation metabolism (catabolism)

Energy metabolism


Energy sources & utilization

*Energy sources of living organisms

Direct donator of energy: ATP

Reserve form of energy: CP

Energy sources: food

Glucose(1 mol): aerobic glycolysis yields 38 mol

ATP; anaerobic glycolysis yields 2 mol ATP

Fat: 1 mol 6C fatty acid yield 44 mol ATP

Protein: rarely used as energy donator


*Energy transfer & utilization

More than 50% transfer to heat,

Less than 50% store in the ATP & CP

Utilization: synthesis & growth

never conduction

muscular contraction

glandular secretion

active absorption



Measuring the metabolic rate

*Direct calorimetry

*Indirect calorimetry

Principle: The law of constant proportions

Several related concepts

Thermal equivalent of food

Thermal equivalent of oxygen

Respiratory quotient (RQ)

Classical & simple measurement

O2 consumption & CO2 production measuring

Closed & opened measurement


Thermal equivalent, Thermal equivalent of

oxygen & Respiratory quotient (RQ) of 3

main nutritional substances


 Factors affecting energy metabolism


Concept of oxygen debt


Thinking peacefully & anxious

Food specific dynamic effect

Environmental temperature

Others: age, sex, circadian rhythm,

hormones, diseases, etc.


 Basal metabolism & Basal metabolic Rate (BMR)

*Definition & Law of body surface area

*Under what condition BMR can be measured?

In theEarly morning

Arousal condition

Lie down peacefully with noexercises

No nervous

Have a good sleep last night

Fasting for over 12 h

Room temperature at 20~25 ℃



NPRQ=0.82; NPTEO=20.18 kJ/L;

BMR=20.18 kJ/LVo2/(m2·h) or

MV: measuring volume; SV: standard volume

*Physiological variation & clinical significances

Physiological variation: age, sex, metabolic level

Clinical significances: assistant to diagnosis of

some diseases, especially for thyroid dysfunction


§ 2. Body temperature & its regulation

 Normal temperature(about 37℃)

*Core & shell temperature

* Definition of body temperature in physiology

*Measurement: oral cavity, rectum, axilla, etc.

 Physiological variation of the body temperature

Circadian rhythm (biorhythm & biological

clock), Sex, Age, Emotion & Exercises,

Influences of season & district

 Skin temperature & mean skin temperature


 Thermogenesis & thermolysis

*Thermogenesis & its regulation

Basal metabolism, Food specific dynamic

effect, Muscular motility, Shivering &

non-shivering thermogenesis

Regulation:Thyroid & other hormones

Sympathetic nerve, NA & A

*Thermolyesis & its regulation

Radiation, Conduction & Convection

Insensible perspiration & Sweating

Regulation:Secretion of sweat

Skin circulation


 Regulation of body temperature


Periphery: Cold & warm receptor

Distribute in the skin, mucosa & viscus

Center: Cold- & warm-sensitive neurons

Distribute in the spinal cord, reticular

formation of brain stem, hypothalamus,

etc., especially in the PO/AH

*Regulatory center: PO/AH

*Theory of set point


Autonomic control in

body temperature regulation