Cold War • How was WWII a “hot war” and the Cold War a “cold war”? • ~approx. 1945-1991 • economic/diplomatic struggle b/w the U.S. and the Soviet Union/satellite nations
USSR expands and closes off • Satellite nation- a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country • Iron curtain- symbolic, ideological, and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from 1945 -1991 • “An iron curtain is drawn down upon their front. We do not know what is going on behind.”- Churchill Blue- democratic Red- communist
Alliances (again!) • NATO • North Atlantic Treaty Organization • April 4, 1949-present • 1st goal- "to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down” • Warsaw Pact • organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. • Warsaw, Poland • 1955-1991
Germany divided Berlin divided Berlin divided into 4 zones GY divided into 4 zones
Containment & George Kennan • Containment- U.S. govt. policy uniting military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to contain any further spread of communism in the world George Kennan (1904-2005) was the author of the Long Telegram that spelled out the intellectual basis of containment.
Domino Theory • If one country fell to communism, others would also • “You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly.”— D. D. Eisenhower
The U.S. loves to help! Marshall Plan • primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the countries of Western Europe, and repelling communism after World War II • July 1947 Truman Doctrine • May 1947 • request by Truman for $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey • Truman argued that the U.S. should support Greece and Turkey economically and militarily to prevent their falling under Soviet control Green- countries that received aid by the Marshall Plan Red- How much received
Berlin Airlift • 1948-1949- the Soviet Union blocked roads to & from Berlin to drive out Western Powers (West Berliners cut off from food, supplies, etc) • Western allies flew in supplies • SU gave up its blockade
Cold War Events • Oct. 4, 1957- Soviets launch Sputnik I, first artificial satellite to orbit the earth • U.S. creates NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)- coordinate research in rocket science & space exploration Sputnik I
Cold War Events… • 1956- Nikita Khrushchev became leader of the Soviet Union (3 years after Stalin’s death) • Jan. 31, 1958- U.S. launched its own satellite (Explorer I) from Cape Canaveral in Florida http://www.archive.org/details/1959-03-05_Big_3_and_Berlin
Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) • Red Army overthrew Chiang Kai-Shek in 1949 • leader of the People’s Republic of China- 1954-1959 • People claim that he executed or starved to death b/w 14-20 million Chinese over two decades in order to bring China the “joys” and “advantages” of Communism
Korean WarKorea divided at the 38th parallel • North Korea- communist • South Korea- democratic • North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950 with the hope of uniting it under communism • As UN troops pushed N.K. troops towards Chinese border, China warned not to come any farther or it would invade & help the N.K. troops
Korean War • MacArthur and Truman had different ideas on war strategy & MacArthur was fired after saying bad things about the president. • War ended in 1953 w/ a truce & stay divided at almost the same line as before • “The Forgotten War”
Berlin Wall construction begins • b/w 1949 and 1961, about 2.5 million East Germans fled from East to West Germany. • Their loss threatened to destroy the economic viability of the East German state. • In response, East Germany built a barrier to close off East Germans' access to West Berlin (and West Germany). The Berlin Wall, was first erected on the night of August 12–13, 1961. • The original wall, built of barbed wire and cinder blocks, was subsequently replaced by a series of concrete walls (up to 15 feet high) that were topped with barbed wire and guarded with watchtowers, gun emplacements, and mines. http://www.euinfrastructure.com/media/article-images/berlinwall.html
http://www.history.com/videos/kennedy-responds-to-berlin-wall#kennedy-responds-to-berlin-wallhttp://www.history.com/videos/kennedy-responds-to-berlin-wall#kennedy-responds-to-berlin-wall Berlin Wall • By the 1980s this system of walls, electrified fences, and fortifications extended 28 miles through Berlin, dividing the two parts of the city, and extended a further 75 miles around West Berlin, separating it from the rest of East Germany. • The Berlin Wall came to symbolize the Cold War's division of East from West Germany and of eastern from western Europe. • About 5,000 East Germans managed to cross the Berlin Wall (by various means) and reach West Berlin safely, while another 5,000 were captured by East German authorities in the attempt and 191 more were killed during the actual crossing of the wall. http://www.history.com/videos/history-rocks-the-berlin-wall
Cuban Missile Crisis- Oct. 1962 • a tense, 13-day political and military standoff over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba • JFK made a decision to start a naval blockade around Cuba & made it clear the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize this perceived threat to national security. • U.S. agreed to Khrushchev's offer to remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for the U.S. promising not to invade Cuba. • Kennedy also secretly agreed to remove U.S. missiles from Turkey. http://www.history.com/videos/russia-withdraws-cuban-missiles
Vietnam War- background (1940s) 1945 • After Chinese and French rule and Japanese occupation, Ho Chi Minh and his People's Congress create the National Liberation Committee of Vietnam to form a provisional government. Japan transfers all power to the Viet minh. • Ho Chi Minh Declares Independence of Vietnam • British Forces Land in Saigon, Return Authority to French 1946 • France recognizes Vietnam as a "free state" within the French Union. • Indochina War Begins*Following months of steadily deteriorating relations, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam launches its first concerted attack against the French.
*Ho Chi Minh “Bringer of Light” "My only desire is that all of our Party and people, closely united in struggle, construct a peaceful, unified, independent, democratic and prosperous, and make a valiant contribution to the world Revolution." (Hanoi, 10 May 1969.)
1954 Battle of Dien Bien Phu Begins*A force of 40,000 heavily armed Vietminh lay siege to the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu. French defeated. Geneva Meeting Begins*Vietnam is divided at the 17th parallel Vietnam War- background (1950-1955) 1950 • Chinese, Soviets Offer Weapons to Viet minh • The United States sends $15 million dollars in military aid to the French for the war in Indochina. Included in the aid package is a military mission and military advisors. Viet minh flag French at Dien Bien Phu
Vietnam War- background (1955-1959) 1955 • Ngo Dinh Diem becomes President of Republic of Vietnam 1956 • French Leave Vietnam 1959 • North Vietnam forms Group 559 to begin infiltrating weapons into South Vietnam via the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The Trail will become a strategic target for future military attacks.
Vietnam War- background (1960-1962) 1960 • Hanoi forms the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. The Diem government dubs them "Vietcong.“ 1962 • The U.S. Air Force begins using Agent Orange -- a defoliant that came in metal orange containers-to expose roads and trails used by Vietcong forces. Agent Orange being dropped Viet cong flag
Vietnam War- background- 1963 1963 • Tensions between Buddhists and the Diem government are further strained as Diem, a Catholic, removes Buddhists from several key government positions and replaces them with Catholics. Buddhist monks protest Diem's intolerance for other religions and the measures he takes to silence them. In a show of protest, Buddhist monks start setting themselves on fire in public places. • With the approval of the United States, operatives within the South Vietnamese military overthrow Diem. He and his brother Ngo DinhNhu are shot and killed. ThíchQuảngĐức & self-immolation
Last words… • The last words of ThíchQuảngĐức before his self-immolation were documented in a letter he had left: “Before closing my eyes and moving towards the vision of the Buddha, I respectfully plead to President Ngo Dinh Diem to take a mind of compassion towards the people of the nation and implement religious equality to maintain the strength of the homeland eternally. I call the venerables, reverends, members of the sangha and the lay Buddhists to organize in solidarity to make sacrifices to protect Buddhism.” David Halberstam wrote: • I was to see that sight again, but once was enough. Flames were coming from a human being; his body was slowly withering and shriveling up, his head blackening and charring. In the air was the smell of burning human flesh; human beings burn surprisingly quickly. Behind me I could hear the sobbing of the Vietnamese who were now gathering. I was too shocked to cry, too confused to take notes or ask questions, too bewildered to even think... As he burned he never moved a muscle, never uttered a sound, his outward composure in sharp contrast to the wailing people around him.
Vietnam War- 1967 http://www.history.com/shows/cities-of-the-underworld/videos/cities-of-the-underworld-3-vietnam-vinh-moc-tunnels#cities-of-the-underworld-3-vietnam-vinh-moc-tunnels Vietcong’s massive system of tunnels is discovered Napalm being used
150 miles of tunnels • Some 23 ft. deep • Room for 16,000 viet cong “Tunnel Rats”- American soldiers sent to seek out enemies in the tunnels http://www.history.com/videos/tunnel-rats-show-courage#tunnel-rats-show-courage
Rolling trap See-saw trap Folding chair trap Trap door trap The spikes under the trap door
1973 • April 30, Saigon falls to North Vietnamese troops & U.S. pulls out of S. Vietnam • Peace treaty ending the Vietnam War is signed in Paris
Ch. 21-25 The World in Events
Northern Ireland • Became independent of Ireland in 1922 though it shares the same govt. as the other areas of the United Kingdom (Constitutional Monarchy w/ Queen Elizabeth II)
South Africa- 1950s • Political system dominated by whites (descendants of the Dutch- Afrikaners) • System of racial segregation- apartheid (“apartness”) • Nelson Mandela worked to gain equality/civil rights for black South Africans • 1994-became South Africa’s 1st. black president • “We shall build a society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity—a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world.”
Chile • 1970 Salvador Allende (a Marxist) became president. • 1973- General Augusto Pinochet staged a coup • One of the most brutal regimes in Chile’s history • 1989- free presidential election led to the defeat of Pinochet & Chile moved toward a more democratic system. Pinochet
Somalia & Rwanda • Somalia • Gained independence from Italy in 1960 • 1990s- experienced a civil war • Rwanda • 1994-genocide (b/w 800,000 & 1 mil. killed) • Tutsi vs. Hutu battles Somalia Rwanda
Cambodia • Brutal revolutionary regime under Pol Pot (leader of the Khmer Rouge) massacred more than a million Cambodians
Iran Hostage crisis • b/w Iran & the U.S. • 52 U.S. diplomats held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981 • group of Islamist students took over the American embassy in support of the Iranian revolution
Persian (Gulf) War • 2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991) • between Iraq & a coalition force (34 countries) • expelled Iraqi forces from Kuwait after Iraq’s occupation & annexation of Kuwait in August 1990.
Sept. 11, 2001 (9/11) • series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the U.S. on September 11, 2001. • 2,998 dead • Resulted in the “War on Terror”
Israeli-Palestinian conflict • Conflict started when Israel was created in 1948 (conflict b/w Jews/Muslims/Christians ongoing for centuries) • Fight over land, religion, & ancient Biblical cities like Jerusalem