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In Pursuit of Memory: A Lesson on the Basics of Brain Anatomy. Power-point presentation for the “ The Amazing Brain ” competition. Content focus: The brain and memory. “ HELP! HELP! My name is H.M.

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in pursuit of memory a lesson on the basics of brain anatomy

In Pursuit of Memory:A Lesson on the Basics of Brain Anatomy

Power-point presentation for the “The Amazing Brain” competition

Content focus:

The brain and memory

slide2

“HELP! HELP!

My name is H.M.

After the removal of the medial regions of my temporal lobes, I suffer from severe memory deficit.

People always say that I can’t remember recent events for just a few minutes!”

“Hey, I’m Dr. Bee,

an expert in brain anatomy, I think I know what is happening in your brain, but before the explanation, we first need to understand

the brain anatomy of memory!”

basically we need to know three major regions of our brain that function for memory

3. Cerebral Cortex

Basically, we need to know three major regions of our brain that function for memory:

1.Hippocampus

2.Hippocampal Region

hippocampus

Hippocampus

Hippocampus

Hippocampus is in the basal medial part of the temporal lobe.

This part of the brain is important for learning and memory.

hippocampal region

Hippocampal Region

Hippocampal Region

Hippocampal region organizes and converts information from short-term memory to long-term memory for permanent storage of memories.

cerebral cortex

Parietal lobe

Frontal lobe

Cerebral Cortex

Occipital lobe

Cerebral cortex is divided into right and left hemispheres.

It lies over and around most of the structures of the brain, and stores different elements of a specific form of memory.

Temporal lobe

slide7

“Well I see… there are different regions in the brain, and they have different functions.

But how about my case, Dr. Bee?

Can my memory deficit be attributed to the removal of the hippocampus?”

slide8

Well… that is actually a case of anterograde amnesia, in which you lose memories of events that happened after the brain surgery.

The problem of anterograde amnesia is due to failure in transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory.

HM’s missing part:

Medial regions of the temporal lobe

slide9

Though it may seem that your memory problem is due to the removal of hippocampus, contemporary researches now suggest that removal of other nearby structures(thehippocampal region & parahippocampal region) also contribute to memory deficits.

HM’s missing part:

Medial regions of the temporal lobe

well not exactly

“Oh I see…

that means memories are stored in hippocampal region&the adjacent areas!”

“Well… not exactly!”

slide11

According to contemporary view, the hippocampal regionplays akey role in the consolidation of memories, i.e. the process of converting information to long-term memory.

But…

slide12

After memories are consolidated in the hippocampal region, they are thenstored in diverse and widely distributed areas of the cerebral cortex .

Therefore other than the hippocampal region,

the cerebral cortexplays a critical role in memory.

slide13

Some theorists even suggest that the hippocampal area only functions to bind together the individual elements of a specific form of memory that are stored in diverse and widely distributed areas of the cerebral cortex (cortical areas).

slide14

Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas

Primary visual area, a functioning area of visual information encoded in the memory, is located in the occipital lobe.

slide15

Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas

Primary somatosensory area,a functioning area of senses of body movements encoded in the memory, is located in the parietal lobe.

slide16

Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas

Primary motor area, a functioning area of voluntary movements encoded in the memory, is located in the parietal lobe.

slide17

Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas

Primary auditory area, a functioning area of auditory signals encoded in the memory, is located in the temporal lobe.

slide18

“I get it… each part of the brain contributes differently to our permanent memory. How amazing the brain is!

Dr. Bee, I’m much interested in knowing more about the brain and memory, could you tell me more?”

“Sure…

Let me tell you the following facts about brain and memory.”

slide19

Our ability to learn and consciously remember everyday facts and events is called declarative memory.

Memory is classified into two main types.

They are declarative memory and nondeclarative memory.

Semantic Memory is a form of declarative memory.

Declarative Memory

Semantic Memory

slide20

Different cortical areas are involved in semantic memory, and no conclusion has been reached yet concerning the nature of cortical areas involved in semantic memory.

Semantic memoryis memory aboutgeneral facts and data.

  • Here are some examples:
  • Octopus is a kind of organism.
  • Football is a kind of sport.
  • Thomas Müller is a German football player.
slide22

Episodic memoryis memory of our specific personal experiences at a particular place and time.

Here is an example:

I saw Octopus Paul living in the tank at the Sea Life Centre in Germany last night.

Where

When

What

The parahippocampal regionis involved inprocessing “what,” “where,” and “when” information about specific personal experiences, and then the hippocampuslinks the information together to be integrated in various cortical areas.

slide23

Nondeclarative Knowledge, the knowledge of how to do something, is expressed in skilled behavior and learnt habits.

Procedural Memory is a form of nondeclarative knowledge.

Nondeclarative Knowledge

Procedural Memory

slide24

Procedural memoryincludes skilled behaviors and learnt habits.

Let say…

Can you describe how the field players play football?

They use their feet to kick to ball ,but sometimes they use their torso or head to intercept the ball in midair.

Right. The skill to play football is just what I said that belongs to procedural memory. And It is processed by the basal gangliaand cerebellum.

slide25

“Thank you so much! That’s really amazing, and you are so informative.

But… sorry…

WHO ARE YOU ?!?!?

OH GOSH!!!

Why haven’t I thought of this??

t h e e n d thank you for your kind attention

TheEndThank you for your kind attention!

In Pursuit of Memory: A Lesson on the Basics of Brain Anatomy