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Lecture #2
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  1. Lecture #2 Methods used for studying brain development

  2. Food for thought • How can you get inside someone’s brain without really getting “inside” their brain? • What would you do to study brain development? • What can we learn about brain from studying behavior (and vice versa)?

  3. Outline • Methods used to measure brain development • Lesion studies

  4. Outline • Methods used to measure brain development • Lesion studies • EEG

  5. Outline • Methods used to measure brain development • Lesion studies • EEG • ERP

  6. Outline • Methods used to measure brain development • Lesion studies • EEG • ERP • Imaging Studies

  7. Outline • Methods used to measure brain development • Lesion studies • EEG • ERP • Imaging Studies • Animal Studies

  8. Outline • Methods used to measure brain development • Lesion studies • EEG • ERP • Imaging Studies • Animal Studies • Neuropsychological Studies

  9. Outline • What’s so great?

  10. Outline • What’s so great? • What’s the problem?

  11. Lesion Studies • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

  12. Lesion Studies • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects • Examples • Amygdala (emotion)

  13. Lesion Studies • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects • Examples • Amygdala (emotion) • Hippocampus (memory)

  14. Lesion Studies • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects • Examples • Amygdala (emotion) • Hippocampus (memory) • Visual cortex (blindsight)

  15. Lesion Studies • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects • Examples • Amygdala (emotion) • Hippocampus (memory) • Visual cortex (blindsight) • Parietal cortex (attention)

  16. Lesion Studies • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects • Examples • Amygdala (emotion) • Hippocampus (memory) • Visual cortex (blindsight) • Parietal cortex (attention) • Left hemisphere (language)

  17. Lesion Studies • What’s so great?

  18. Lesion Studies • What’s so great? • What’s the problem?

  19. Electroencephalography (EEG) • Measures “brain waves”

  20. Electroencephalography (EEG) • Measures “brain waves” • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system

  21. Electroencephalography (EEG) • Measures “brain waves” • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system • Can be used as a very low level indicator (is this person alive)

  22. Electroencephalography (EEG) • Measures “brain waves” • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system • Can be used as a very low level indicator (is this person alive) • Can also be used to measure behavior • Depression

  23. Electroencephalography (EEG) • How does it work?

  24. Electroencephalography (EEG) • How does it work? • Brains produce electricity

  25. Electroencephalography (EEG) • How does it work? • Brains produce electricity • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

  26. Electroencephalography (EEG) • How does it work? • Brains produce electricity • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity

  27. Electroencephalography (EEG) • How does it work? • Brains produce electricity • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands

  28. Electroencephalography (EEG) • How does it work? • Brains produce electricity • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands • Power

  29. Electroencephalography (EEG) • How does it work? • Brains produce electricity • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands • Power • Activation

  30. Electroencephalography (EEG) • How does it work? • Brains produce electricity • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands • Power • Activation • Activation in a particular frequency range

  31. EEG • What’s so great?

  32. EEG • What’s so great? • What’s the problem?

  33. Event – related Potentials (ERP) • Definition:

  34. Event – related Potentials (ERP) • Definition: • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.

  35. Event – related Potentials (ERP) • Definition: • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event. • How do you measure them?

  36. Event – related Potentials (ERP) • Definition: • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event. • How do you measure them? • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity

  37. Event – related Potentials (ERP) • Definition: • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event. • How do you measure them? • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity • Activity is recorded in response to a specific discrete event.

  38. Event – related Potentials (ERP) • Definition: • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event. • How do you measure them? • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity • Activity is recorded in response to a specific discrete event. • Averaging over enough trials gets rid of the “noise” of the background EEG.

  39. ERP (continued) • What do they look like?

  40. ERP (continued) • What do they look like? • Components seen in infants • Nc Component

  41. ERP (continued) • What do they look like? • Components seen in infants • Nc Component • PSW

  42. ERP (continued) • What do they look like? • Components seen in infants • Nc Component • PSW • P300

  43. ERP (continued) • What do they look like? • Components seen in infants • Nc Component • PSW • P300 • Sensory Components

  44. ERP (continued) • What do they look like?

  45. ERP (continued) • What do they look like? • Components seen in infants • Nc Component • PSW • P300 • Sensory Components • What can you learn from them? • Examples • Language and early phonological development

  46. ERP • What’s so great?

  47. ERP • What’s so great? • What’s the problem?

  48. Imaging • CAT Scans

  49. Imaging • CAT Scans • Useful for describing overall brain structure