INTRODUCTIONTO SYSTEMATICANATOMY The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. NicolaesTulpbyRembrandt, 1632 Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D. 17 . September2013 TUESDAY
. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY • MOLECULES ATOMS
. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY Trillions of the cells in the human body
. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY 78 organs in the body
. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY 9 -13 systems
. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY HUMAN BODY
Systems in the body 1. SkeletalSystem 2. Articularsystem 3. MuscularSystem 4. Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System 5. RespiratorySystem 6. Digestive (Alimentary) System 7. Urinary (Excretory) System 8. Reproductive (Genital) System 9. Endocrine System 10.Nervous system 11.Integumentary system Locomotorsystem
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM • None of the systems functions • in isolation. • passive skeletal &articular systems • active muscular system • collectively constitute a supersystem • locomotor system • must work together to produce locomotion of the body.
LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM brain and nerves of the nervous system stimulate them to act. arteries and veins of the circulatory system supply oxygen and nutrients remove waste from these structures. sensory organs (especially vision and equilibrium) play important roles in directing their activities.
Skeletal System • bones and cartilages Bones are organs, and along with the cartilages form the skeletal system.
Skeletal System • bones and cartilages For parts of the human body, other organs, muscles, vessels, etc. a framework is required. The sketetal system actually provides this framework for the body with its strong composure.
Skeletal System Providesour basic shape. Supportsthe soft tissues Vitalfor the movement. Servesas a point of attachment for ligaments, tendons, fascia, and muscle.
Skeletal System PROTECTION
Cranium (Skull) skeleton of the head protectsthe brain which resides within itself.
Vertebralcolumn protects the spinal cord In an adult typically consists of 33 vertebrae arranged in 5 regions 7 cervicalvertebrae 12 thoracicvertebrae 5 lumbarvertebrae 5 sacralvertebrae 4 coccygealvertebrae
Thorax part of the body between the neck and abdomen Skeletal framework formed by sternumin the middle 12 ribs on each side a 12 thoracic vertebrae posteriorly.
Thorax part of the body between the neck and abdomen The thoracic skeleton forms a framework to protect two vital organs; the heart and the lungs.
Pelvis • The bones of the pelvis • Rightand left pelvic (hip) bones • Sacrum • Coccyx • The three hip bones • Ilium • ischium • Pubis
Pelvis Sacrumarticulates superiorly with vertebra LV @ lumbosacral joint. Pelvicbones articulate posteriorly with sacrum @ sacro-iliac joints anteriorlywith each other @ pubic symphysis.
Pelvis • Pelvicskeleton protects • lower part of the digestive system and urinary system • reproductive system.
BONES OF THE ARM & FOREARM BONES OF THE THIGH & LEG 1 bone 2 bones
Articular system joints & theirassociated ligaments • Joints & ligamentsconnect the bony parts of the skeletal system and providethe sites at which movements occur.
Muscular System • 3 types of muscles • FXN • controlled voluntarily or involuntarily, whether they appear • APPEARANCE • striated (striped) or smooth • LOCATION • associated with the body wall (somatic), • or with organs and blood vessels (visceral)
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System transports fluids throughout the body. the heart and blood vessels make up the blood transportation network, the cardiovascular system.
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System • Heartpumps blood throughout the body • Bloodvessels, closed network of tubes,transport the blood. • 3 types of blood vessels • Arteriestransportblood away from the heart. • Veinstransport blood toward the heart. • Capillariesconnect the arteries and veins. • where oxygen, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged within the tissues.
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System Arteries in 3 classes According to; Amount of smoothmuscles & elasticfibers @ tunicamedia Size of thevessel Its function 1.Large elasticarteries 2.Medium musculararteries 3.Small arteries and arterioles
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System Large elastic arteries Toomuchelasticfibers @ tunicamedia Expansion andrecoilandconstantbloodflowtotheheart An example aorta
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System Medium muscular arteries Smooth muscles @ tunica media Regulation of thediameter of vesselsandcontrol of theflowtotheparts of the body. An example radial artery
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System Small arteries and arterioles control the filling of the capillaries contribute to the arterial pressure in the vascular system.
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System Veins into three classes Large veins thickest layer tunica externa superior vena cava & inferior vena cava Small and Mediumveins small amounts of smooth muscle superficial veins in the upper and lower limbs deeper veins of the leg and forearm Venules smallest veins drain the capillaries
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System Wallsof the blood vessels consist of three layers or tunics tunica externa (adventitia) outer connective tissue layer tunica mediamiddle smooth muscle layer tunica intimainner endothelial lining of the blood vessels
Leftheart (Pumping) well- oxygenated(arterial) blood fromthelungs pulmonaryveins leftatriumleftventricle aorta the body Right heart (Suction) poorly- oxygenated(venous) blood fromthe body superior vena cava & inferior vena cava rightatriumrightventricle pulmonaryarteries lungs
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System The main artery in the body aorta. Arteries have also branches themselves.
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System Blood flow in arteries Blood flow in veins
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System Arterieshavebranches Arteriesfromtheartery Veinshavetributaries Veinsdrainintoveins Somearteriesdividedintopartbydistinctmuscles! maxillaryartery
Lymphatic system a network of lymphatic vessels Thesevesselstaketheexcesstissuefluidlymph from the body's intercellularfluid compartment returns it to the bloodstream.
Lymphatic system lymph lymphvessels regional lymph nodes larger lymph nodes venous system Right heart Final destination
Respiratory System air passages & lungs supply oxygen to the blood eliminate carbon dioxide from it.
Respiratory System Upper respiratory tract Nose-Pharynx-Larynx Lower respiratory tract Respiratory organs of the thorax The lower respiratory tract fills most of the thorax.
THORAX irregularly shaped cylinder superior thoracic aperture superiorly inferior thoracic aperture inferiorly. Superiorthoracic aperture open, allowing continuity with the neck Inferiorthoracic aperture closed by the diaphragm.
DIAPHRAGM important muscle for respiration forms a section between thorax and abdomen.
THORACIC WALL consists of skeletal elements and muscles Posteriorly 12thoracic vertebraeand their intervening intervertebral discs Laterally Ribs (12 on each side)&3layers of flat muscles Anteriorly Sternum manubrium of sternum, body of sternum, and xiphoid process
THORACIC CAVITY enclosed by the thoracic wall and the diaphragm
Digestive (Alimentary) System digestive tract from the mouth to the anus all its associated organs & glands function in: ingestion chewing Swallowing digestion absorption of food elimination of the solid waste (feces)
Digestive (Alimentary) System Abdomen Abdominalwall bounded superiorly xiphoid process third-most inferior part- of the sternumcostal margins posteriorly vertebral column inferiorly upper parts of the pelvic bones
Digestive (Alimentary) System Surfaceanatomy