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INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY. The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp by Rembrandt , 1632. Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D . 17 . September 201 3 TUESDAY . . INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY. MOLECULES. ATOMS. . INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY.

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slide1

INTRODUCTIONTO SYSTEMATICANATOMY

The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. NicolaesTulpbyRembrandt, 1632

Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D. 17 . September2013 TUESDAY

slide3

. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY

Trillions of the cells in the human body

slide8

Systems in the body

1. SkeletalSystem

2. Articularsystem

3. MuscularSystem

4. Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

5. RespiratorySystem

6. Digestive (Alimentary) System

7. Urinary (Excretory) System

8. Reproductive (Genital) System

9. Endocrine System

10.Nervous system

11.Integumentary system

Locomotorsystem

slide10

LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM

  • None of the systems functions
  • in isolation.
  • passive skeletal &articular systems
  • active muscular system
  • collectively constitute a supersystem
  • locomotor system
  • must work together to produce locomotion of the body.
slide11

LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM

brain and nerves of the nervous system

stimulate them to act.

arteries and veins of the circulatory system

supply oxygen and nutrients

remove waste from these structures.

sensory organs (especially vision and equilibrium)

play important roles in directing their activities.

slide12

Skeletal System

  • bones and cartilages

Bones are organs, and along with the cartilages

form the skeletal system.

slide13

Skeletal System

  • bones and cartilages

For parts of the human body, other organs, muscles, vessels, etc. a framework is required.

The sketetal system actually provides this framework

for the body with its strong composure.

slide14

Skeletal System

Providesour basic shape.

Supportsthe soft tissues

Vitalfor the movement.

Servesas a point of attachment for ligaments, tendons, fascia, and muscle.

slide15

Skeletal System

PROTECTION

slide16

Cranium (Skull)

skeleton of the head

protectsthe brain which resides within itself.

slide17

Vertebralcolumn

protects the spinal cord

In an adult typically consists of 33 vertebrae

arranged in 5 regions

7 cervicalvertebrae

12 thoracicvertebrae

5 lumbarvertebrae

5 sacralvertebrae

4 coccygealvertebrae

slide18

Thorax

part of the body between the neck and abdomen

Skeletal framework

formed by

sternumin the middle

12 ribs on each side a

12 thoracic vertebrae posteriorly.

slide19

Thorax

part of the body between the neck and abdomen

The thoracic skeleton forms a framework to protect two vital organs;

the heart and the lungs.

slide20

Pelvis

  • The bones of the pelvis
  • Rightand left pelvic (hip) bones
  • Sacrum
  • Coccyx
  • The three hip bones
  • Ilium
  • ischium
  • Pubis
slide21

Pelvis

Sacrumarticulates superiorly with vertebra LV @ lumbosacral joint.

Pelvicbones articulate

posteriorly with sacrum @ sacro-iliac joints

anteriorlywith each other @ pubic symphysis.

slide22

Pelvis

  • Pelvicskeleton protects
  • lower part of the digestive system and urinary system
  • reproductive system.
slide23

BONES OF THE ARM & FOREARM

BONES OF THE THIGH & LEG

1 bone

2 bones

slide24

Articular system

joints & theirassociated ligaments

  • Joints & ligamentsconnect the bony parts of the skeletal system and providethe sites at which movements occur.
slide25

Muscular System

  • 3 types of muscles
  • FXN
  • controlled voluntarily or involuntarily, whether they appear
  • APPEARANCE
  • striated (striped) or smooth
  • LOCATION
  • associated with the body wall (somatic),
  • or with organs and blood vessels (visceral)
slide26

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

transports fluids throughout the body.

the heart and blood vessels make up the blood transportation network, the cardiovascular system.

slide27

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

  • Heartpumps blood throughout the body
  • Bloodvessels, closed network of tubes,transport the blood.
  • 3 types of blood vessels
  • Arteriestransportblood away from the heart.
  • Veinstransport blood toward the heart.
  • Capillariesconnect the arteries and veins.
  • where oxygen, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged within the tissues.
slide28

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

Arteries in 3 classes

According to;

Amount of smoothmuscles & elasticfibers @ tunicamedia

Size of thevessel

Its function

1.Large

elasticarteries

2.Medium

musculararteries

3.Small arteries and arterioles

slide29

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

Large elastic arteries

Toomuchelasticfibers @ tunicamedia

Expansion andrecoilandconstantbloodflowtotheheart

An example aorta

slide30

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

Medium muscular arteries

Smooth muscles @ tunica media

Regulation of thediameter of vesselsandcontrol of theflowtotheparts of the body.

An example radial artery

slide31

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

Small arteries and arterioles

control the filling of the capillaries

contribute to the arterial pressure in the vascular system.

slide32

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

Veins into three classes

Large veins

thickest layer tunica externa

superior vena cava & inferior vena cava

Small and Mediumveins

small amounts of smooth muscle

superficial veins in the upper and lower limbs

deeper veins of the leg and forearm

Venules

smallest veins

drain the capillaries

slide33

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

Wallsof the blood vessels consist of

three layers or tunics

tunica externa (adventitia) outer connective tissue layer

tunica mediamiddle smooth muscle layer

tunica intimainner endothelial lining of the blood vessels

slide34

Leftheart (Pumping)

well- oxygenated(arterial) blood

fromthelungs

pulmonaryveins

leftatriumleftventricle

aorta

the body

Right heart (Suction)

poorly- oxygenated(venous) blood

fromthe body

superior vena cava & inferior vena cava

rightatriumrightventricle

pulmonaryarteries

lungs

slide35

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

The main artery in the body aorta.

Arteries have also branches themselves.

slide36

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

Blood flow in arteries

Blood flow in veins

slide37

Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

Arterieshavebranches

Arteriesfromtheartery

Veinshavetributaries

Veinsdrainintoveins

Somearteriesdividedintopartbydistinctmuscles!

maxillaryartery

slide38

Lymphatic system

a network of lymphatic vessels

Thesevesselstaketheexcesstissuefluidlymph

from the body's intercellularfluid compartment

returns it to the bloodstream.

slide39

Lymphatic system

lymph

lymphvessels

regional lymph nodes

larger lymph nodes

venous system

Right heart

Final destination

slide40

Respiratory System

air passages & lungs

supply oxygen to the blood

eliminate carbon dioxide from it.

slide41

Respiratory System

Upper respiratory tract

Nose-Pharynx-Larynx

Lower respiratory tract

Respiratory organs of the thorax

The lower respiratory tract fills most of the thorax.

slide42

THORAX

irregularly shaped cylinder

superior thoracic aperture superiorly

inferior thoracic aperture inferiorly.

Superiorthoracic aperture open, allowing continuity with the neck

Inferiorthoracic aperture closed

by the diaphragm.

slide43

DIAPHRAGM

important muscle for respiration

forms a section between thorax and abdomen.

slide44

THORACIC WALL

consists of skeletal elements and muscles

Posteriorly

12thoracic vertebraeand their intervening intervertebral discs

Laterally

Ribs (12 on each side)&3layers of flat muscles

Anteriorly

Sternum

manubrium of sternum, body of sternum, and

xiphoid process

slide47

THORACIC CAVITY

enclosed by the thoracic wall and the diaphragm

slide48

Digestive (Alimentary) System

digestive tract

from the mouth to the anus

all its associated organs & glands

function in:

ingestion

chewing

Swallowing

digestion

absorption of food

elimination of the solid waste (feces)

slide49

Digestive (Alimentary) System

Abdomen Abdominalwall

bounded

superiorly

xiphoid process

third-most inferior part- of the sternumcostal margins

posteriorly

vertebral column

inferiorly

upper parts of the pelvic bones

slide52

Urinary (Excretory) System

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, &urethra

filter blood

produce, transport, store, & intermittently excrete

urine (liquid waste)

slide53

Urinary (Excretory) System

The two bean-shaped kidneys are located in the posterior abdominal region.

The ureters are muscular tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

slide54

Urinary (Excretory) System

The ureters descend down to the pelvis exiting from the kidneys on each side.

They enter the pelvic cavity, and continue their journey to the bladder.

slide55

Pelvis (L.basin)

part of the trunk inferoposterior to the abdomen

area of transition between the trunk & lower limbs

Pelviccavity

inferiormost part of the abdominopelvic cavity.

slide56

Abdominopelviccavity

extends superiorly into the thoracic cage

inferiorly into the pelvis

its superior and inferior parts are relatively protected.

Perforating wounds in either the thorax or the pelvis may therefore involve the abdominopelvic cavity and its contents.

slide57

Pelviccavity

limited inferiorly by musculofascial

pelvic diaphragm

suspended above the pelvic outlet

forming a bowl-like pelvic floor.

slide58

Pelviccavity

bounded posteriorly by coccyx and inferiormostsacrum

superior part of the sacrum

formes a roof over the posterior half of the cavity.

slide59

Pelviccavity

Anteroinferiorwall

Bodiesof the pubic bones+pubic symphysis uniting them

Posterosuperiorwall & ceiling

Sacrum & Cocyx

slide60

Pelviccavity

contains

Terminalparts of theureters

Urinary bladder

Rectum

Pelvicgenital organs

Blood vessels

Lymphatics

Nerves

+

an overflow of abdominal viscera

slide61

Reproductive (Genital) System

consists of the gonads (ovaries and testes) that produce oocytes (eggs) and sperms, the ducts that transport them, and the genitalia that enable their union.

slide62

Reproductive (Genital) System

The reproductive tracts are located

in the pelvic cavity.

between the pelvic inlet superiorly and the pelvic diaphragm inferiorly

contains

terminal parts of the urinary and digestive systems

internal genital organs

associated vascular structures

nerves supplying both the pelvis and lower limbs.

slide63

Endocrine System

specialized structures secretinghormones

discrete ductless endocrine glands

isolated and clustered cells of the gut and blood vessel walls

specialized nerve endings.

Hormones

influence metabolism & other processes

menstrual cycle

pregnancy

parturition (giving birth)

slide65

NERVOUS SYSTEM

C.N.S.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

brain + spinalcord

2. P.N.S.

PERIPHEREAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

consists of nerve fibers and cell bodies outside the CNS.

conduct impulses to or away from the CNS.

organized into nerves that connect the CNS with peripheral structures

slide66

NervecellNeuron

structural & functional units of the nervous system

Neuroglia- cellssupportingneurons

Neuronsarespecializedforrapidcommunication.

Neuron has:

Axoncarries information

Dendiritesin communication with the surrounding neurons

slide67

A collection of neuronsfordoingthesamefunction(s)

Inthe CNS Nucleus (pl., nuclei)

Inthe PNS Ganglion (pl., ganglia)

slide68

A nerve fiber

TWO TYPES

efferent fibers

goes down from the brain or leaves out from the spinal cord

totheperiphery

carrying information to accomplish a behavior/action

afferent fibers

carries information fromperiphery or from spinal cord to the brain

Arcreflex

slide69

Somatic &Visceral Fibers

Somatic fibers

General sensory fibers

general somatic afferent [GSA] fibers

Transmit sensations from the body to the CNS

Exteroceptivesensations from

skin pain, temperature, touch, & pressure or pain

Proprioceptivesensations from

muscles, tendons, and joints

slide70

Somatic &Visceral Fibers

Somatic fibers

Somatic motor fibers

general somatic efferent [GSE] fibers

transmit impulses to skeletal (voluntary) muscles.

slide71

Visceral fibers

Visceral sensory fibers

general visceral afferent [GVA] fibers

transmit pain or subconscious visceral reflex sensations

e.g. information concerning distension, blood gas, and blood pressure levels

from hollow organs and blood vessels to CNS

slide72

Visceral fibers

Visceral motorfibers

general visceral efferent [GVE] fibers

Transmitimpulses to smooth muscles&glandular tissues.

presynaptic &postsynaptifibers

conduct impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle or glands.

presynaptic

fibers

postsynaptic

fibers

slide73

Somatic Nervous System

somatic parts of the CNS &PNS

provides sensory&motor innervation to all parts of the body

(G. soma)

except viscera in the body cavities, smooth muscle, and glands

transmits sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and position

from sensory receptors

somatic motor system innervates only skeletal muscle

slide74

Autonomic Nervous System

visceral nervous system or visceral motor system

motor fibers that stimulate

smooth (involuntary) muscle

modified cardiac muscle

glandular (secretory) cells

slide84

In a spinal nerve you will find:

  • Motor fibers
  • Sensory fibers
  • Autonomic nervous system fibers
slide85

CRANIAL NERVES

Like spinal nerves, cranial nerves

bundles of sensory or motor fibers

innervate muscles or glands

carryimpulses from sensory receptors

or a combination of motor and sensory fibers.

slide86

CRANIAL NERVES

12 pairs

part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)

pass through foramina or fissures in the cranial cavity.

slide87

CRANIAL NERVES

All nerves except one, the accessory nerve [XI], originate from the brain.

There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which are numbered I-XII, from rostral to caudal .

Their names reflect their general distribution or function.

slide88

CRANIAL NERVES

carry one or more of the five main functional components.

  • Motor (efferent) fibers
  • 2. Sensory (afferent) fibers
  • 3. Fibers transmitting general sensation
  • e.g., touch, pressure, heat, cold, etc.
  • 4. Fibers conveying sensation from the viscera
  • 5. Fiberstransmittinguniquesensations
  • e.g., taste, smell
slide89

Motor (efferent) fibers

1. Motor fibers to voluntary (striated) muscles

include somatic motor (general somatic efferent) axons

Facialnerve (CN VII)

slide90

Motor (efferent) fibers

2. Motor fibers innervating involuntary muscles or glands

include visceral motor (general visceral efferent) axons

constitute cranial outflow of parasympatheticsystem.

slide91

Motor (efferent) fibers

2. Motor fibers innervating involuntary muscles or glands

Presynaptic(preganglionic) fibers emerge from the brain

synapseoutside the central nervous system (CNS)

@ a parasympathetic ganglion.

Postsynaptic(postganglionic) fibers innervate smooth muscles & glands

e.g.sphincter pupillae & lacrimal gland

slide92

Sensory (afferent) fibers

CRANIAL NERVES

3. Fibers transmitting general sensation

e.g., touch, pressure, heat, cold, etc

from the skin and mucous membranes.

Includesomatic sensory (general somatic afferent) fibers.

slide93

Sensory (afferent) fibers

CRANIAL NERVES

4. Fibers conveying sensation from the viscera

include visceral sensory (general visceral afferent) fibers conveying information from

carotid body and sinus, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract.

slide94

CRANIAL NERVES

Sensory (afferent) fibers

5. Fibers transmitting unique sensations

specialvisceralafferentfibers

special sensory fibers conveying taste and smell

special somatic afferent fibers

special senses of vision, hearing, and balance

slide95

Integumentary system

  • Skin is thelargest organ of the body.
  • It consists of the epidermis and the dermis.