“Industrial Revolution” and “The Jacksonian Era” Chapters 11 & 12 Test Review Answers
Sectionalism • Loyalty to your own region, or part of the nation rather than the whole nation itself.
Electoral College • In the Election of 1824, Jackson won the most popular votes. But he did not receive a majority of electoral votes. • According to the Constitution, if no person wins a majority of electoral votes, the House of Representatives must choose the president
Industrial Revolution • North- Industrial Economy (manufacturing & trade) • South- Agricultural Economy
Jacksonian Era • The common man became important rather than just the wealthy men. • Issues with: Native Americans, States’ Rights, and the National Bank of the United States • Critics thought Jackson tried to “rule the nation” and had too much power.
Spoils System • Patronage- When presidents give people who supported them key positions in their new administration. • “To the victor belongs the spoils.” • It is common for presidents to appoint cabinet members, but this was the first time a president “cleaned house.” • Some viewed this as corrupt and too much power for a president to have.
Nullification • According to Calhoun, a state had the right to nullify, or reject, a federal law that it considers unconstitutional. • He said, that any state could nullify, or void, a federal law within it’s borders. • He believed that congress had no right to impose a tariff that favored one section of the country. Therefore, South Carolina had the right to nullify the tarriff.
Monroe Doctrine • Created by President James Monroe • United States demanded that Europe stay out of the affairs of Latin America (no colonization). • Monroe declared it would be seen as “dangerous to our peace and safety.” • The United States wanted to be the big influence on Latin America. • This showed that the U.S. saw itself as a world power.
Missouri Compromise • Missouri applied for statehood in 1817 • The people of Missouri wanted slavery • There were 11 states where slavery was allowed and 11 states where it was not • Maine also wanted to become a state • Henry Clay came up with the idea to keep the balance • Missouri became a slave state • Maine became a free state • Slavery was outlawed North of Missouri Compromise Line
Election of 1824 • Andrew Jackson, “the common man,” won the popular vote but there was no clear winner in the Electoral College • Because of the tie of Electoral College votes, the election had to be decided in the House of Representatives who picked John Quincy Adams. • Jackson felt as though the election had been stolen from him. • Over the next 4 years, the split between the “common people” and the more privileged led to the split of the Democratic Republican party into 2 parties. • Democrats- Jackson • National Republicans- Adams
Election of 1828 • 1st election where all white males could vote • Began the modern democratic party • Jackson ran again for president against Adams but this time he won. • During the campaign he promoted his version of democracy in which the majority would rule and the power would be taken away from the rich, elite and given totally to the people.
Indian Removal Act • Gave Andrew Jackson the power to negotiate resettlement treaties with the Native Americans and allowed the states to make laws governing their territory. • Jackson believed this compromise would allow the Native American to preserve their way of life and the Americans to get the land they wanted. • Instead, it caused death and hardship. • Led to the Trail of Tears, or the forced removal of the Cherokee Indians from native lands to Indian Territory because we wanted their land for farming and gold.
Factory System- North • Industrial Economy (manufacturing & trade) • Factories started in New England because rivers were used to generate power for factories and to ship goods.
Plantation System- South • South: Agricultural Economy • Became an economy based on cash crops and plantations (usually cotton) that relied heavily on slave labor to be profitable.
Jacksonian Democracy • Government run for the people and run BY THE PEOPLE. (Democracy) • Democracy in economic, social, and political life • Wanted a split between farming and manufacturing • Limited government with a very strong president
Jeffersonian Democracy • Government for the people but run by well educated (rich) leaders. (Republicanism) • Democracy in political life • Wanted farmers and mainly agricultural life • Limited Government
Jackson and the National Bank • Jackson thought the National bank of the US was too powerful. • The Bank’s president, Biddle, controlled the money supply for the entire nation. • He felt the Bank was partial to wealthy clients and hurt the average person. • Jackson vetoed renewing the Bank’s charter. • Congress passed the bill with a 2/3 majority, but people were upset because Jackson ignored the decision by the Supreme Court and was a tyrant.
National Bank cont. • Despite that, Jackson won the re-election in 1832 and took it as a sign that people supported his war on the bank. • Jackson began having all federal money desposited into state banks rather than the federal one. • By doing this, he ended up putting the National Bank out of business.
Eli Whitney • Inventor • Cotton Gin Allowed more cotton to be cleaned and processed each day. Expanded the use of slaves in the south for cheap farm labor. • Interchangeable Parts Creation of identical parts made production easier, faster and much more reliable.
Samuel F.B. Morse • Inventor • Telegraph Improved communication. Allowed people to track news and movements of friends and family. Allowed businesses to track orders and shipments of goods
John Deere • Inventor • Steel Plow Made plowing much easier and allowed it to go much faster. It was easier to make a profit at cash- cropping.
Robert Fulton • Inventor • Steam Boat Allowed people and goods to travel much faster.
Samuel Slater • Inventor • Textile Mills Mass production of cloth for making clothing and other goods. Mills employed mostly unskilled workers. (Women and Children)
James Hargreaves • Inventor • Spinning Jenny Spun thread into cloth for mass production of clothing, etc.
Elias Howe • Inventor • Sewing Machine Allowed cloth to be turned into clothes quickly and on a mass scale. Clothes could now be made in factories for profit and purchased in stores instead of hand-made (giving women more leisure time).
Cyrus McCormick • Inventor • Mechanical Reaper Greatly increased farm production.
Henry Bessemer • Inventor • Bessemer Steel Process Process of purifying hot iron ore to make steel. Things that were once made out of iron (railroad tracks, etc.) could now be made out of steel which lasts much longer before breaking.